Basic Biographical Details

Name: Wardrop & Reid
Designation: Architectural practice
Started: 1874
Ended: 1883
Bio Notes: James Maitland Wardrop was born in London on 16 March 1824, the son of James Wardrop MD, surgeon to George IV, and Margaret, widow of Captain Burn RN and daughter of George Dalrymple of North Berwick. He served his apprenticeship with Thomas Brown II of Edinburgh and was taken into partnership in 1849, the practice of Brown & Wardrop being based at 19 St Andrew Square.

Wardrop gradually took over the design work relating to Brown's position as architect to the Prison Board of Scotland, his style and planning being closely based on that of David Bryce, in whose office he may have spent some time.

Wardrop married on 28 September 1853 at Dundas Castle Anna Maria, 5th daughter of James Dundas, 24th and last of Dundas, a financially unsuccessful inventor. This widened the already extensive landed connections he had inherited from his mother. Much of his work consisted of modernising older houses, but in 1861 he secured the commission for the huge Scottish Baronial Lochinch, built for the 10th Earl of Stair as a setting for the collections of his countess, daughter of the Duc de Coigny. With a big tower as its dominant feature, well organised plan and indoor bowling alley and extensive formal gardens, it established him as a serious rival to Bryce, a position consolidated by the equally large and stylish Franco-Scottish Stitchill, Roxburgh (1866) and the remodelling of Callendar Park, Stirlingshire (1869-77) as a vast symmetrical Francois Ier chateau. Glenternie, Peeblesshire (1863), Ardwell, Wigtownshire (1869), Udny (1874) and Fairburn, Ross-shire (1877) were all of a similar school to Bryce's houses, but his substantial enlargement of the 16th-century Z-plan tower house of Nunraw, East Lothian (1868) in its own style with thick walls, small openings and convincing detail was by far the most accomplished essay in pure revivalism then achieved in Scotland, anticipating R S Lorimer's work much later; in similar vein was his rebuilding from ruins of Barnbougle, Dalmeny, Edinburgh (1881).

At Kinnordy, Angus (1879), Wardrop again broke new ground, the house being large and picturesquely composed in an early-17th-century Scots style but with a studied avoidance of towers, turrets, parapets and other baronial compositional features. At his largest and finest house, Beaufort, Inverness-shire, (1880) Wardrop again demonstrated, as at Stitchill, that he could handle the asymmetrical composition of a really enormous house better than Bryce by concentrating the design into large, simple masses. While Wardrop's classical work was usually subdued Italianate, he became a pioneer of neo-Georgian through his association with the London decorators Wright and Mansfield's Adam-inspired refit of Haddo, Aberdeenshire (1879) and the rebuilding of Barskimming, Ayrshire (1882) in a convincing late-18th-century idiom. Wardrop also rebuilt a large number of country parish churches in a distinctive early decorated style, notable Cumnock, Ayrshire (1864), Methlick, Aberdeenshire (1865), Stow, Midlothian (1862), and Ayton (1867) and Langton (1871) in Berwickshire; he was also a tactful restorer, as can be seen at Mid Calder, West Lothian (1863).

Brown appears to have retired or died in 1872. The firm's chief draughtsman, Charles Reid, was then taken into partnership. Born in 1828, Charles Reid was a much younger brother of Alexander and William Reid of Elgin. The practice does not seem to have adopted the title of Wardrop & Reid until 1874. In 1876 the firm succeeded the ailing David Cousin as architects to the British Linen Bank. Wardrop's son, Hew M Wardrop, born on 25 February 1856 and an assistant in George Edmund Street's office from 1874, rejoined the practice in the mid-1870s, subsequently merging it with that of Robert Rowand Anderson and George Washington Browne as Wardrop, Anderson & Browne. In his brief career the younger Wardrop proved a skilful exponent of a William Eden Nesfield-derived neo-Jacobean at Ballochmyle, Ayrshire (1885) and of Arts and Crafts vernacular at the restoration and enlargement of Tilliefour, Aberdeenshire (1885). His assistant Robert Stodart Lorimer was profoundly influenced by him.

James Maitland Wardrop died on 27 June 1882 at Lydney Lodge, 2 Forbes Road, Edinburgh, a house designed and built for himself in 1865-66. Charles Reid died in 1883. Wardrop's son Hew M Wardrop (born 1856) merged the business with Robert Rowand Anderson and George Washington Browne's business as Wardrop, Anderson & Browne, with its address still at 19 St Andrew Square.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architectural practice:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 119, St Andrew Square, Edinburgh, ScotlandBusiness18731883 

Employment and Training

Employees or Pupils

The following individuals were employed or trained by this architectural practice (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 9Hew Maitland Wardrop (later Hew Montgomerie Wardrop)18741874Apprentice 
Item 2 of 9James Maitland Wardrop18741882Partner 
Item 3 of 9Charles Reid18741883Partner 
Item 4 of 9John Kinross18751880Assistant 
Item 5 of 9James Jerdan1875c. 1885Clerk of Works 
Item 6 of 9John (Cairns?) Shackleton1877 * Draughtsman 
Item 7 of 9James McLellan FairleyAfter 1881Before 1886Assistant 
Item 8 of 9George JohnstoneBefore 18821883Clerk of Works 
Item 9 of 9Hew Maitland Wardrop (later Hew Montgomerie Wardrop)c. 18821883Partner 

* earliest date known from documented sources.

Buildings and Designs

This architectural practice was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 761849West Hall, farmstead and farm offices, cottages etcMonimail FifeScotlandFive cottages
Item 2 of 761864Unidentified farmhouse, Hopetoun estate  West LothianScotland 
Item 3 of 761874Ancrum HouseAncrum RoxburghshireScotlandRebuilt after fire
Item 4 of 761874Chapel of EaseSelkirk SelkirkshireScotland 
Item 5 of 761874Craigsanquhar House and stables  FifeScotland 
Item 6 of 761874Crawford Parish ChurchCrawford LanarkshireScotland 
Item 7 of 761874(?)Kilkerran HouseMaybole AyrshireScotlandDining room, office court and stable block
Item 8 of 761874Philiphaugh House and West Lodge  SelkirkshireScotlandAlterations and additions
Item 9 of 761874Stirling CourthouseStirlingshire StirlingshireScotlandScheme executed - based on Brown & Wardrop design of 1864
Item 10 of 761874Stow ChurchStow MidlothianScotlandBegun under Brown & Wardrop, completed under Wardrop & Reid
Item 11 of 761874Udny Castle with lodge and gates  AberdeenshireScotlandNew building incorporating earlier castle. Also south lodge
Item 12 of 761874University of Edinburgh, Medical School and McEwan Hall  EdinburghScotlandCompetition design - not successful
Item 13 of 761875Cranston Parish ChurchCranstoun Riddel MidlothianScotlandInterior alterations
Item 14 of 761875Fettercairn HouseLaurencekirk KincardineshireScotlandNew wing and alterations
Item 15 of 761875Heriot ChurchHeriot MidlothianScotland 
Item 16 of 761875Linlithgow Old County Buildings, with courthouse and police stationLinlithgow West LothianScotlandAdditions
Item 17 of 761875Rosebery House  MidlothianScotlandDesigns for alterations - apparently unexecuted
Item 18 of 761875Royal Bank of ScotlandWishaw LanarkshireScotland 
Item 19 of 761875Sleat Parish ChurchSleatSkyeInverness-shireScotlandDesign - church executed by John Mackenzie of Isleornsay, 1877
Item 20 of 761875St Nicholas Parish ChurchUphall West LothianScotlandAlterations and additions.
Item 21 of 76c. 1875Aros House MullArgyllScotlandAdditions
Item 22 of 761876British Linen BankLangholm DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 23 of 761876British Linen BankCarluke LanarkshireScotlandAlterations
Item 24 of 761876Dalhousie FountainBrechin AngusScotland 
Item 25 of 761876Harleyburn House, stables and lodgeMelrose RoxburghshireScotlandGate lodge
Item 26 of 761876Hassendean Burn  RoxburghshireScotlandAlterations
Item 27 of 761876HouseTrinity EdinburghScotland 
Item 28 of 761876SchoolLochgair ArgyllScotland 
Item 29 of 761876William Simpson's AsylumPlean/Quarter/Cushen Quarter StirlingshireScotlandSouth addition and alterations
Item 30 of 761877Arniston House  MidlothianScotlandAlterations to north elevation - raising of links between central part and pavilions to 2 storeys
Item 31 of 761877Balerno Board School and SchoolhouseBalerno MidlothianScotland 
Item 32 of 761877Braehead HouseCramond EdinburghScotlandReconstruction
Item 33 of 761877Culzean Castle  AyrshireScotlandNew nursery wing and interior remodelling - Reid responsible
Item 34 of 761877Culzean Castle Estate, Fountain Court, walls, orangery and shelter  AyrshireScotlandUnclear of role
Item 35 of 761877Fairburn Estate, Aultgowrie Lodge and gates  Ross and CromartyScotland 
Item 36 of 761877Fairburn House  Ross and CromartyScotland 
Item 37 of 761877Freeland House  PerthshireScotlandAdditions, including great hall
Item 38 of 761877Hardhill farmhouse, farm offices and houses (for farm workers?)Armadale West LothianScotland 
Item 39 of 761877Lochinch HouseWigtown WigtownshireScotlandCottages built
Item 40 of 761877Ormiston ChurchOrmiston East LothianScotlandAdditions
Item 41 of 761877Ormiston SchoolOrmiston East LothianScotland 
Item 42 of 761877Philiphaugh House and West Lodge  SelkirkshireScotlandGates and West Lodge
Item 43 of 761877Three Mile Town Farmhouse  West LothianScotlandAddition
Item 44 of 761878British Linen BankBrechin AngusScotlandAlterations
Item 45 of 761878Chirnside Parish ChurchChirnside BerwickshireScotlandRepairs and alterations
Item 46 of 761878Hoddom CastleEcclefechan DumfriesshireScotlandAdditions - Tudor range at east side
Item 47 of 761878Inverquharity Castle  AngusScotlandScheme for new house incorporating existing tower house (alternative to rebuilding Kinnordy House, not executed)
Item 48 of 761879Bank of ScotlandNewton Stewart WigtownshireScotlandRemodelling
Item 49 of 761879British Linen BankHaddington East LothianScotlandAlterations
Item 50 of 761879Cambo House  FifeScotlandNew house built: ruins of previous house demolished
Item 51 of 761879Camphill House  AberdeenScotlandAdditions
Item 52 of 761879Culzean Castle cottages  AyrshireScotland 
Item 53 of 761879Dalquharran Castle  AyrshireScotlandTwo schemes for additions - not built to their designs
Item 54 of 761879Duns Parish ChurchDuns BerwickshireScotlandRebuilding after fire
Item 55 of 761879Haddo HouseHaddo/Methlick AberdeenshireScotlandMajor alterations
Item 56 of 761879House for Mr TurnbullSelkirk SelkirkshireScotland 
Item 57 of 761879House for Mr WaddellSelkirk SelkirkshireScotland 
Item 58 of 761879Kinnordy House  AngusScotland 
Item 59 of 761879Villa, Ettrick RoadSelkirk SelkirkshireScotland 
Item 60 of 761880sDouglas Castle  LanarkshireScotlandScheme for Chapel and Hall (last digit of date missing)
Item 61 of 761880Barnbougle CastleDalmeny Park West LothianScotlandRestoration as library - begun 1880 and continued onwards
Item 62 of 761880Beaufort CastleBeauly Inverness-shireScotlandWork begun 1880 and continued (including chapel)
Item 63 of 761880British Linen BankGalashiels SelkirkshireScotland 
Item 64 of 761880British Linen BankPeebles PeeblesshireScotlandDesign
Item 65 of 761880British Linen BankThornhill DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 66 of 761880CarnellHurlford AyrshireScotlandAdditions to house, including chimneypieces in main rooms
Item 67 of 761881Dailly New Parish ChurchDailly AyrshireScotlandUnexecuted scheme
Item 68 of 761881Nether ParkleyLinlithgow West LothianScotland 
Item 69 of 761882Ardgowan HouseInverkip RenfrewshireScotlandScheme for alterations (not executed)
Item 70 of 761882Barskimming House  AyrshireScotlandRebuilding of main block after fire
Item 71 of 761882Commercial Bank of Scotland, Dunfermline BranchDunfermline FifeScotlandLarge extension
Item 72 of 761882High ChurchBathgate West LothianScotland 
Item 73 of 761882St Mary's Parish ChurchHawick RoxburghshireScotlandRebuilding after fire - apparently begun under Wardrop & Reid and completed under Wardrop, Anderson & Browne
Item 74 of 761882St Thomas's Church of England  EdinburghScotlandRefacing of Rutland Street elevation, new porch
Item 75 of 761882The HirselColdstream BerwickshireScotlandSeveral schemes for remodelling, not built
Item 76 of 761886Biel CottageBiel East LothianScotland 


Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architectural practice:
Item 1 of 3Architects Engineers and Building Trades Directory1868Architect's, Engineer's and Building Trades' Directory London, Wyman 
Item 2 of 3Colvin, H M1995A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600-18403rd editionNew Haven and London: Yale University Press 
Item 3 of 3Pride, Glen L1999The Kingdom of Fife2nd EditionThe Rutland Pressp141

Archive References

The following archives hold material relating to this architectural practice:
 SourceArchive NameSource Catalogue No.Notes
Item 1 of 1H M Register HouseDeath Register