Basic Site Details

Name: Culzean Castle
City or county: Ayrshire
Country: Scotland
Parish: Kirkoswald
Status: A Listed
Grid ref:
Notes: Correspondence in Ailsa muniments shows that Charles Reid, rather than James Maitland Wardrop, was responsible. Cost: 18,500; Wardrop & Reid's fee: 900. The plasterers for the Adam revival work were Jackson & Sons of London.

Building Type Classification

The building is classified under the following categories:
 ClassificationOriginal classification?Notes
Item 1 of 1Country House  


The following date-based events are associated with this building:
 FromToEvent typeNotes
Item 1 of 10  Won award or awardsBoys Jarvis was a finallist in the Times/RICS Conservation Award in 1974 for Culzean Country Park Centre and Exhibition.
Item 2 of 101700s AdditionLandscape work
Item 3 of 1017761792Build/constructionColvin gives 1777-1792
Item 4 of 101800s AdditionImprovements to landscape copntonued right up to WWI
Item 5 of 101818 Plans datedSurvey plan
Item 6 of 1018771880AdditionNew nursery wing and interior remodelling - Reid responsible
Item 7 of 101946  Restoration begun
Item 8 of 101950s   
Item 9 of 1023 April 1954 * Restoration1,500 scheme of redecoration
Item 10 of 10Before 1975 RestorationStone restoration

* earliest date known from documented sources.


Design and Construction

The following individuals or organisations have carried out design/construction work. Where architects or practices worked together, matching letters appear beside their names in the Partnership Group column.
 NameRolePartnership GroupFromToNotes
Item 1 of 15James AdamArchitectH1755 Was approached for commission to design a villa - scheme not carried out.
Item 2 of 15William Chambers (Sir)ArchitectD1759 Drew up plans for a banqueting house - not realised
Item 3 of 15Hugh CairncrossArchitectG17721786Assisted Adam as clerk of works - and supervised the construction of the oval staircase and round drawing room
Item 4 of 15Robert AdamArchitectT17761792Colvin gives 1777-1792
Item 5 of 15Thomas White JMid 1700s Landscaping
Item 6 of 15James DonaldsonArchitectT1818 Survey plan, dated 1818.
Item 7 of 15Charles ReidArchitectA18771880New nursery wing and interior remodelling - Reid responsible
Item 8 of 15Wardrop & ReidArchitectural practiceA18771880New nursery wing and interior remodelling - Reid responsible
Item 9 of 15Thomas White juniorLandscape architectK1900s Enhancement of landscape - right up to WWI
Item 10 of 15Neil & HurdArchitectural practiceB1946 Restoration begun
Item 11 of 15Robert Philip Andrew HurdArchitectB1946 Restoration begun
Item 12 of 15Walter Schomberg Hepburne ScottArchitect 1950s Restoration continued
Item 13 of 15John Philip Boys FBefore 1975 Stone restoration
Item 14 of 15The Boys Jarvis Partnership FBefore 1975 Stone restoration
Item 15 of 15William Geoffrey JarvisArchitectFBefore 1975 Stone restoration


The following individuals or organisations have commissioned work on this building/design:
Item 1 of 1Kennedy, Sir Thomas, 10th earl of CassillisClient for commission to James Adam

Related Buildings, Structures and Designs

Child Structures

This structure or site has the following component or child structures (click on an item to view details):
 Building NameNotes
Item 1 of 1Culzean Castle, walled garden 


Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this building:
Item 1 of 17Adam, R & J1931The Works in Architecture of Robert & James Adam   
Item 2 of 17Bolton, A T1922The Architecture of Robert and James Adam 1758-1794  pp263-77
Item 3 of 17Close, Rob and Riches, Anne2012The Buildings of Scotland: Ayrshire & Arran New Haven and London: Yale University Pressp245-254
Item 4 of 17Close, Robert1992Ayrshire and Arran, an Illustrated Architectural Guide Edinburgh: RIASp171
Item 5 of 17Close, Robert1992Ayrshire and Arran, an Illustrated Architectural Guide Edinburgh: RIASpp169-172
Item 6 of 17Colvin, Howard2008A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600-1840 London: YUP. 4th edition 
Item 7 of 17Fleming, J1968'Robert Adam's Castle Style'143Country Life, 23 May 1968, pp1356-1369p1356-1359. Also May 30 pp1443-1447
Item 8 of 17Gow, Ian Reinventing Culzean160Appollo, November 2004, 
Item 9 of 17Historic Scotland An inventory of gardens and designed landscapes in Scotland   
Item 10 of 17King, David2001The Complete Works of Robert & James Adam   
Item 11 of 17Moss, Michael2002The Magnificent Castle of Culzean and the Kennedy Family Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 
Item 12 of 17RIBA1975RIBA Directory of practices   
Item 13 of 17RIBA1981Directory of Practices 1981   
Item 14 of 17Rowan, Alistair1985Designs for Castles and Country Villas   
Item 15 of 17Rykwert, J & A1985The Brothers Adam: The Men and The Style   
Item 16 of 17Stormonth-Darling, J and Prentice, R1985Culzean: the Continuing Challenge: the Story of the Restoration and Preservation of Culzean Castle and Country Park sinc   
Item 17 of 17Tait, A A1993Robert Adam: Drawings and Imagination   

Periodical References

The following periodicals contain references to this building:
 Periodical NameDateEditionPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 2Builder23 April 1954  p709
Item 2 of 2Country Life4 September 1915  Issue dtaed 4-11 September 1952

Archive References

The following archives hold material relating to this building:
 SourceArchive nameSource catalogue no.Notes
Item 1 of 4British LibraryKing's MapsXXVII, 29 (3)In portfolio with Survey Plan of Culzean.
Item 2 of 4Historic Environment ScotlandListed Buildings Register7595 
Item 3 of 4National Monuments Record of Scotland/NMRS, RCAHMSDrawings Collection Copies of Marquess of Ailsa drawings. Wardrop & Reid drawings.
Item 4 of 4National Monuments Record of Scotland/NMRS, RCAHMSRIAS Collection 12 watercolours from the Hurd Rolland Collection