Basic Biographical Details

Name: Rowand Anderson, Paul & Partners
Designation: Architectural practice
Started: 1934
Ended: 1946
Bio Notes: Arthur Forman Balfour Paul ('Baffy' to his friends and to his staff) was born in Edinburgh on 7 August 1875, the son of Sir James Balfour Paul, Lyon King of Arms. He was educated at Edinburgh Academy from 1885 to 1892 and was articled to Sir Robert Rowand Anderson from 1892 to 1896, remaining as a draughtsman until 1897 and studying at the School of Applied Art under Frank Worthington Simon and Stewart Henbest Capper. His travels in these early years included a short sketching tour in Belgium and Holland in 1895 and a three-month tour of England in 1897. In 1898 he obtained a place in John Belcher's office in London, staying there for a year and studying at the LCC School of Art before returning to Edinburgh to commence practice on his own account from home at 30 Heriot Row. Following the dissolution of the Anderson, Simon & Crawford partnership Sir Rowand Anderson invited him to return to his practice as partner in 1903. Paul joined the Edinburgh Architectural Association in the same year and it was on the recommendation of that association and of its President, James Bow Dunn, that he was admitted LRIBA in the mass intake of 20 July 1911.

The partnership was interrupted by the First World War. Paul was a keen territorial who had joined the London Scottish as a piper when with Belcher. He was commissioned as a major in the Royal Engineers and served with distinction in France, being awarded the MC and the Croix de Guerre with Gold Star. Anderson continued the practice, albeit in failing health, with some help from Alexander Lorne Campbell.

Paul resumed partnership in 1919 and became sole partner, Anderson having finally retired: Lorne Campbell was Anderson's executor and he, not Paul, as has been stated, designed the memorial cottage to Lady Anderson at Colinton. Crucially for the practice Paul retained the feuing of the Fettes Trust and Braid estates, providing a flow of business which saw it through a lean period. In 1930 Paul's former assistant William Kininmonth returned to Edinburgh from Lutyens's office. Paul's practice which was then managed by John McClure Anderson, was at a low ebb and he was unable to re-employ him. He did however offer Kininmonth a room in his office. It had only a drawing board and a telephone but it enabled him to form a partnership with his friend and colleague in Lutyens' office, Basil Urwin Spence. In 1930-31 both partners distinguished themselves in competitions, Spence winning the RIBA Silver Medal as the best student in the UK. The Kininmonth & Spence partnership had some success, the income from it being supplemented by teaching at Edinburgh College of Art. In 1934 Paul offered Kininmonth a partnership. Kininmonth felt he had to decline unless Spence was taken into partnership as well. Paul accepted this proposal and the Kininmonth & Spence partnership merged into Paul's as Rowand Anderson & Paul & Partners in 1934. By that date business had significantly recovered, enabling them to take on as an assistant Alan Reiach, previously of Lorimer and Matthews's office. The name, Rowand Anderson & Paul & Partners, remained until 1946 when Spence left to set up his own practice having been appointed as chief architect to the 'Britain can make it' exhibition. From 1938 Kininmonth and Spence were the only partners, Paul having died on 3 January of that year, leaving a widow Jane Prichard Montgomerie Fleming. In his later years he had moved from his original marital home at 32 Ormidale Terrace to Peffermill House, Craigmillar. His estate amounted to 24,365 18s 10d.

Paul was active in professional matters, serving on the RIBA Council after his election as FRIBA in 1933, for which he was proposed by John Begg, James Alexander Arnott and John Wilson. He was President of the Edinburgh Architectural Association 1934-36, and was President elect of the RIAS when he died.

Kininmonth was awarded the RIBA Diploma in 1931 and was placed second in the Rowand Anderson Silver medal competition. He returned to Edinburgh in 1910 but Paul could not afford to re-employ him. He did, however, offer him a room in his office. It had only a drawings board and a telephone but it enabled him to form a partnership with his friend and colleague in Lutyens' office, Basil Urwin Spence as Kininmonth & Spence in October 1931. It specialised in presentation work for other practices as well as original design work, supplemented by teaching at Edinburgh College of Art. Kininmonth and Spence's practice was immediately successful, Kininmonth's own modernist house at 46A Dick Place (1933) acting as an excellent advertisement. In 1934 Paul offered Kininmonth a partnership but he felt he had to decline unless Spence was taken into partnership as well. Paul accepted this proposal and the Kininmonth & Spence partnership merged into Paul's as Rowand Anderson & Paul & Partners. Kininmonth and Spence continued teaching although by that date business had significantly recovered. This arrangement continued until June 1938 when Paul died. From 1939 to 1941 Kininmonth held the post of senior lecturer in design at Edinburgh College of Art. In 1942 he was called up and served with the Royal Engineers in Algeria, Tunisia, Sicily and Italy.

On their return from war service Kininmonth and Spence found that there was little work on offer. Spence left the practice in 1946 to found Basil Spence & Partners. Kininmonth continued the Rowand Anderson partnership as Rowand Anderson Kininmonth & Paul.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architectural practice:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 116, Rutland Square, Edinburgh, ScotlandBusiness1934After 1937 

Employment and Training

Employees or Pupils

The following individuals were employed or trained by this architectural practice (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 15John Lyon Gauldie19341935Apprentice 
Item 2 of 15David Maxtone Craig1934After 1937Chief Draughtsman 
Item 3 of 15Arthur Forman Balfour Paul19341938Partner 
Item 4 of 15(Sir) William Hardie Kininmonth 19341946Partner 
Item 5 of 15(Professor) Edward Walter Rail WaughOctober 1934October 1935Assistant 
Item 6 of 15William Alexander Bruce RobertsonAfter 19341946Assistant 
Item 7 of 15Ian Sinclair Gavin1934 or 19351935 or 1936ApprenticeFor 12 months
Item 8 of 15(Sir) Basil Urwin Spence19351946Partner 
Item 9 of 15Hamish Eadie BurdenJuly 1936September 1940Apprentice 
Item 10 of 15Philistas Rognvald Howard Stoughton Holbourn19371937Apprentice(?)One month's office experience during studies
Item 11 of 15William Robertson AnnanJuly 1937August 1937Assistant 
Item 12 of 15John Malcolm McClure AndersonFebruary 1938 * Assistant 
Item 13 of 15James ('Jim') Ferguson Dickson DinwoodieMid 1930s1939Apprentice 
Item 14 of 15Alexander ('Sandy') MacCallum (or McCallum) BrownBefore 19461946Apprentice 
Item 15 of 15William Leslie Roworthc. 1946(?)  Role unclear

* earliest date known from documented sources.


Buildings and Designs

This architectural practice was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 451932Housing estate for Berwickshire County CouncilBurnmouth BerwickshireScotlandBasil Spence and William Hardie Kininmonth as project architects
Item 2 of 45193422 Frogston Road West  EdinburghScotland 
Item 3 of 45193440-42 Dick Place  EdinburghScotland 
Item 4 of 451934House for St Katherine'sLiberton EdinburghScotland 
Item 5 of 451934Murrayfield Golf ClubhouseMurrayfield EdinburghScotlandConversion of clubhouse into dwelling house
Item 6 of 45193557 Oxgangs Road  EdinburghScotland 
Item 7 of 451935Broomhill House  Inverness-shireScotlandAddition
Item 8 of 451935Building Exhibition, Waverley Market  EdinburghScotland 
Item 9 of 451935Dunedin House  EdinburghScotland 
Item 10 of 451935Falkirk Municipal BuildingsFalkirk StirlingshireScotlandUnsuccessful competition entry
Item 11 of 451935L'Aperitif Restaurant  EdinburghScotland 
Item 12 of 451935Liberton HouseLiberton EdinburghScotlandRemoval of later additions and restoration
Item 13 of 451935Timber HousesForth LanarkshireScotland 
Item 14 of 451935Unidentified Church   Scotland 
Item 15 of 451935Upton, 141 Corsebar RoadPaisley RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 16 of 451936Broughton Place, including summer house, tennis court, walled garden, gatepiers, and stableblock  PeeblesshireScotland 
Item 17 of 451936Church and Suite of Church HallsCorstorphine EdinburghScotland 
Item 18 of 451936Edinburgh Sports Club  EdinburghScotlandOriginal design - amended design the following year.
Item 19 of 451936Fettes CollegeComely Bank EdinburghScotlandInterior renovation
Item 20 of 451936Fettes College, Dalmeny House  EdinburghScotlandInterior renovation of passages, changing rooms and study area
Item 21 of 451936Fettes College, new hall and new chapel  EdinburghScotlandProposed new hall
Item 22 of 451936Garth of FinlarigDulnain Bridge Inverness-shireScotland 
Item 23 of 451936Glasgow Empire Exhibition, ICI pavilionBellahouston GlasgowScotland 
Item 24 of 451936Glasgow Empire Exhibition, masterplanBellahouston GlasgowScotlandWorked with Thomas Smith Tait on masterplan
Item 25 of 451936Glasgow Empire Exhibition, Scottish PavilionBellahouston GlasgowScotland 
Item 26 of 451936House for St Katherine'sLiberton EdinburghScotlandAdditions
Item 27 of 451936Johannesburg Exhibition, Scottish Pavilion  JohannesburgSouth Africa 
Item 28 of 451936Salvation Army Headquarters and HomeLeith EdinburghScotlandIn conjunction with Oswald Archer
Item 29 of 451936Scottish Every Day Art Exhibition  EdinburghScotland 
Item 30 of 451936St Mary's Episcopal ChurchDalkeith MidlothianScotlandMemorial tablet to the 7th Duke of Buccleuch
Item 31 of 451937Cleghorn Building  EdinburghScotlandBuilding completed to planned length with some detail alterations to existing building, modification of corner and third floor windows and omitting the high roof planned by Lochhead
Item 32 of 451937Corstorphine Parish ChurchCorstorphine EdinburghScotlandAssisted Balfour Paul with restoration and alterations
Item 33 of 451937Edinburgh Dental Hospital and school  EdinburghScotlandProposed extension (executed 1952-54. The 1950s drawings differ from the pre-war appeal brochure)
Item 34 of 451937Gribloch HouseKippen StirlingshireScotlandWorked in association with Perry Duncan
Item 35 of 451937Kirkcaldy Town HallKirkcaldy FifeScotlandCompetition design - placed 4th - commended
Item 36 of 451937Quothquhan  LanarkshireScotland 
Item 37 of 451937Scottish School of Art & IndustryKilsyth StirlingshireScotland 
Item 38 of 451938Duddingston Parish Church, hallDuddingston EdinburghScotland 
Item 39 of 451938Falkirk Royal Infirmary Nurses' HomeFalkirk StirlingshireScotlandWon competition but not built
Item 40 of 451938Glasgow Empire Exhibition, country cottage and flat for the Council for Art & IndustryBellahouston GlasgowScotland 
Item 41 of 45Before 1938(?)Cowan House  EdinburghScotlandAlterations - exact date unknown, may have been done under the name of Rowand Anderson & Paul
Item 42 of 451939HospitalLochart  Scotland 
Item 43 of 451939West CourtLongniddry East LothianScotland 
Item 44 of 451940Fettes College, new hall and new chapel  EdinburghScotlandProposed new hall and new chapel
Item 45 of 451949Fettes College, new hall and new chapel  EdinburghScotlandPlans for extension of chapel

References

Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architectural practice:
 Author(s)DateTitlePartPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 1Glendinning, Miles1997Rebuilding Scotland: The Postwar Vision, 1945-75  Tuckwell Press Ltdp1 Night view of the Glasgow Empire Exhibtion - from brochure. ICI Pavilion
p12 Site plan and perspective of Timber Housing, Lanarkshire
p96-7 Kilsyth Academy

Periodical References

The following periodicals contain references to this architectural practice:
 Periodical NameDateEditionPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 3Builder17 September 1948  p329
Item 2 of 3Builder21 January 1949  p109
Item 3 of 3Builder4 November 1949  p595