Basic Site Details

Name: Dumfries House
Town, district or village: Cumnock (near)
City or county: Ayrshire
Country: Scotland
Parish:  
Status: A listed
Grid ref:
Notes: The house was designed by the Adam brothers (Robert, John and James). Contract drawings signed by all three.

Plaster work by Philip Robertson a cousin of the Adam brothers. Firegrates by David Robertson, brother of Philip.

Building Type Classification

The building is classified under the following categories:
 ClassificationOriginal classification?Notes
Item 1 of 1Mansion house  

Events

The following date-based events are associated with this building:
 FromToEvent typeNotes
Item 1 of 1617541760Build/construction 
Item 2 of 161860s Alterations and additionsWest wing, Turkish bath
Item 3 of 161867 Alterations and additionsMain block, redecoration of entrance hall and north parlour. Carried out by Campbell & Smith.
Item 4 of 161894 SurveySurvey carried out
Item 5 of 161895 Plans drawn upDesigns produced for alterations and enlargement
Item 6 of 16c. 1896c. 1897Alterations and additionsMain block: redecoration and alterations to bedroom floor, toplighting of corridor etc
Item 7 of 16February 1897 Plans drawn upRevisions to proposals for enlargement
Item 8 of 16May 18971908AdditionEnlargement of west wing, tapestry room, book room schoolroom, smoking room, west corridor. Scheme finalised May 1897. Contracts October 1897. (William Swanston clerk of works, details modelled by Lawrence Turner, lead work, clock dial William Dodd. Also main block: strenghtening and partial replacement of first floor in steel and concrete.
Item 9 of 1618991905AdditionEast wing enlargement to provide new chapel. East corridor, final scheme, April 1899 and May 1899. William Swanston clerk of works.
Item 10 of 16May 18991900 Proposed Chinese bridge over River Lugar reusing abutments of previous iron bridge (not built)
Item 11 of 1619031905 Demolition of Turkish bath; new billiard room and smoking room; alterations to Tapestry room
Item 12 of 161906  Chapel: marble lining (left incomplete)
Item 13 of 1619131914Alterations and additionsMinor alterations to attics and roof structure replaced
Item 14 of 161928 ProposedReconstruction of Schultz's chapel proposed.
Item 15 of 1619341935 Chapel dismantled and space in basement converted to library and on first floor into dining room
Item 16 of 161968 RestorationAlso dining room (proposed reduction in size, not carried out, coffering in Venetian window alcove which was executed)

People

Design and Construction

The following individuals or organisations have carried out design/construction work. Where architects or practices worked together, matching letters appear beside their names in the Partnership Group column.
 NameRolePartnership GroupFromToNotes
Item 1 of 17William AdamArchitectL1740s Drew up initial designs.
Item 2 of 17James AdamArchitectS17541759 
Item 3 of 17John AdamArchitectS17541759Continued designs after his father's death in 1748. Also designed large frame above chimneypiece and Avenue Bridge.
Item 4 of 17Robert AdamArchitectS17541759 
Item 5 of 17William Atkinson RailtonArchitectH1860s West wing, Turkish bath
Item 6 of 17William Atkinson RailtonArchitectJ1868 Main block, redecoration of entrance hall and north parlour. Carried out by Campbell & Smith.
Item 7 of 17Robert Weir SchultzArchitectB18951906Major additions and alterations (see 'Event' for full list)
Item 8 of 17William McClellandArchitectB18951895Major additions and alterations - as draughtsman to R W Schultz
Item 9 of 17Allan StevensonArchitect 19131914Minor alterations to attics and roof structure replaced
Item 10 of 17Arthur Forman Balfour PaulArchitectC19341935Chapel dismantled and space in basement converted to library and on first floor into dining room
Item 11 of 17Rowand Anderson & PaulArchitectural practiceC1934 Chapel dismantled and space in basement converted to library and on first floor into dining room
Item 12 of 17Archibald CrawfordArchitectK1968 Restoration. Dining room (proposed reduction in size, not carried out, coffering in Venetian window alcove which was executed)
Item 13 of 17Ian Alexander SinclairArchitectK1968 Restoration. Dining room (proposed reduction in size, not carried out, coffering in Venetian window alcove which was executed)
Item 14 of 17John Crowe McBrideArchitectK1968 Restoration. Dining room (proposed reduction in size, not carried out, coffering in Venetian window alcove which was executed)
Item 15 of 17John Watson (junior)ArchitectK1968 Restoration. Dining room (proposed reduction in size, not carried out, coffering in Venetian window alcove which was executed)
Item 16 of 17Watson, Salmond & GrayArchitectural practiceK1968 Restoration. Dining room (proposed reduction in size, not carried out, coffering in Venetian window alcove which was executed)
Item 17 of 17William MacDonaldArchitectK1968 Restoration. Dining room (proposed reduction in size, not carried out, coffering in Venetian window alcove which was executed)

Clients

The following individuals or organisations have commissioned work on this building/design:
 NameNotes
Item 1 of 3Bute, 3rd Marquess ofAdditions and alterations between 1895 and 1903
Item 2 of 3Bute, 4th Marquess of (John Crichton-Stuart)Additions and alterations between 1903 and 1935
Item 3 of 3Dalrymple, William - 4th Earl of DumfriesOriginal building, 1754-59

Related Buildings, Structures and Designs

Child Structures

This structure or site has the following component or child structures (click on an item to view details):
 Building NameNotes
Item 1 of 1Dumfries House, Lodge 

References

Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this building:
 Author(s)DateTitlePartPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 9Close, Rob and Riches, Anne2012The Buildings of Scotland: Ayrshire & Arran New Haven and London: Yale University Pressp295-6, 298-302
Item 2 of 9Close, Robert1992Ayrshire and Arran, an Illustrated Architectural Guide Edinburgh: RIASp140-1
Item 3 of 9Colvin, Howard2008A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600-1840 London: YUP. 4th edition 
Item 4 of 9Davis, Michael C1991The Castles and Mansions of Ayrshire Ardrishaig, Argyll: privately publishedpp245-6
Item 5 of 9Green, Simon2014Dumfries House: an architectural story Edinburgh: RCAHMSpp166-167, 187-196, 197-201, 202-204, 213, 218-219, 228, note 73
Item 6 of 9RIBA1970RIBA Directory 1970   
Item 7 of 9Ruddock, Ted1979Arch Bridges 1735-1835  p118
Item 8 of 9Stamp, Gavin1981Robert Weir Schultz, Architect, and his work for the Marquesses of Bute  London: The Curwen Press / Mount Stuartpp33-6 (quotes letter of 11 August 1934 at Mount Stuart)
Item 9 of 9Taylor, Kristina and Peel, Robert1021Passion, plants and patronage: 300 years of Bute Family Landscapes Artifice Bookspp149-150

Archive References

The following archives hold material relating to this building:
 SourceArchive nameSource catalogue no.Notes
Item 1 of 4Ayrshire Archives (from February 2007)Darley- Hay Partnership archive Plans/drawings by Robert Weir Schultz and Allan Stevenson
Item 2 of 4Historic Environment ScotlandListed Buildings Register14413Dumfries House
Item 3 of 4Mitchell Library GlasgowOffice Plans and drawings of Watson, Salmond & Gray550Boxes A, B, C
Item 4 of 4Mount StuartBute Archives Letter books, 1895 onwards; drawings