Basic Biographical Details

Name: Hay & Henderson
Designation: Architectural practice
Started: 1877
Ended: 1905
Bio Notes: William Hay was born at Dykeside, Peterhead on 17 May 1818, the son of William Hay, grain merchant, and his wife Jean Alexander. He was apprenticed as a joiner but broke his leg in a fall when working on Ellishall House, and encouraged by his doctor, studied architecture during his convalescence, his first job being St James Episcopal Church, Cruden Bay, 1842-43. In 1844 he married his first wife Janet Reid (1819-60) and moved to Edinburgh as an assistant with John Henderson in order to gain experience. In 1846 he moved to George Gilbert Scott's in London and was entrusted with the building of St John's Cathedral, Newfoundland for which he travelled extensively in England and Scotland in late 1846 and early 1847 recruiting craftsmen and ordering materials. He sailed in April 1847 with his wife and her brother Thomas, who was his ward, and remained in Newfoundland until the completion of the nave of St John's in 1850. In 1848-49 he was consulted by Bishop Reid on James Cranston of Oxford's designs of 1844 for Holy Trinity Cathedral, Hamilton, Bermuda and made alterations in the course of execution, but no other work is recorded in his years at St Johns. In 1850-53 he seems to have at least intermittently been based in Peterhead where he built St John's Episcopal Church at Longside and No 22 Broad Street for his mother, but he visited Montreal and Chicago with a view to setting up practice before finally settling on Toronto, probably late in 1853. There he became Vice-President of the Mechanics Institute and Secretary of the Association of Architects Civil Engineers and Provincial Surveyors of Canada, but after his wife died childless in 1860 he abruptly departed in 1861, handing over his very prosperous practice to his assistant Henry Langley. In 1862 he was in Bermuda and in 1863 in Halifax having formed a short-lived partnership with David Stirling: in 1864, however, he returned to Scotland, married Jemima Huddleston (1838-1905) of Ryde, Isle of Wight, by whom he had one daughter, Fanny, and set up practice in Edinburgh. In 1871 he secured the important commission for the restoration of St Giles from William Chambers.

In December 1875 Hay invited George Henderson, the son of his former employer, to join him in partnership. Henderson had been born on 3 October 1846, and had been educated at the Royal High School in Edinburgh from 1858 to 1861 and then trained with his father until his death in June 1862, completing his apprenticeship with David Cousin who took over at least one of his father's commissions. He had left to emigrate to Australia, arriving in May 1867 and joining the office of his former fellow assistant in his father's office, Alexander Davidson in Rokewood, Victoria. At first he had acted as an unpaid associate to Davidson, though before long both Henderson and Davidson had been able to send money home to assist their respective families, a number of large commissions coming their way in late 1868 and in early 1869 when the practice moved to Geelong in Victoria. A partnership had been formalised in late 1869, with Davidson receiving 2/3 of the profit and the younger partner 1/3. In early 1870 the partners had won the important commission for Geelong College in Newtown and in line with stylistic developments in Britain had used for the first time 'constructional polychromy'. A venture in the field of speculative building in Geelong had however not been a success and a series of unfortunate episodes of losing jobs to other architects and disputes with contractors (relating to a clause written by the practice in their terms of agreement about their right to be the sole judge of quality without arbitration) had caused them financial difficulties. Moreover in the early 1870s there had been a short depression in the wool industry and some sources of work temporarily dried up. Their first partnership had ended in December 1873 and although a new one had been formalised in July 1874 with Davidson receiving 5/9 of the profits, by this time Henderson, who had lived with Davidson and his wife since his arrival in Australia, found this arrangement a strain. Moreover he was becoming disillusioned with the work. He accepted Hay's offer and his partnership with Davidson was terminated on less than friendly terms in April 1876, Henderson sailing home later that year. The new partnership with Hay officially began in the following year.

Hay died at Rabbit Hall, Hamilton Street, Joppa, on 30 May 1888, after eight months of illness. Henderson continued the practice after Hay's death. He married Mary Elizabeth Leith Malcolm in 1897. They had two daughters, Elizabeth Stella and Amy Louise Huntly.

Henderson died on 24 March 1905 at 25 Hermitage Gardens. His office was then at 12 Queen Street.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architectural practice:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 317, Hill Street, Edinburgh, ScotlandBusinessc. 1877  
Item 2 of 32, Hill Street, Edinburgh, ScotlandBusinessc. 18841887 
Item 3 of 312, Queen Street, Edinburgh, ScotlandBusinessc. 1888c. 1899 

Employment and Training

Employees or Pupils

The following individuals were employed or trained by this architectural practice (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 7William Hay18771888Partner 
Item 2 of 7George Henderson18771905Partner 
Item 3 of 7Robin Smith Dods (or Robert Smith Dods)18861890Assistant 
Item 4 of 7William James Kennedy18941899Apprentice 
Item 5 of 7Alan Lawrie Goodwin (or Alan Laurie Goodwin, or Alexander Lawrie Goodwin, or Allan L Goodwin)1 February 18971902ApprenticeUnder sole partner George Henderson
Item 6 of 7William James Kennedy18991902Assistant 
Item 7 of 7Alan Lawrie Goodwin (or Alan Laurie Goodwin, or Alexander Lawrie Goodwin, or Allan L Goodwin)19021905Assistant 

Buildings and Designs

This architectural practice was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 681870sSchoolWest Linton PeeblesshireScotland 
Item 2 of 681870sWest Linton School and Episcopal ChurchWest Linton PeeblesshireScotlandAdapted for use as church alone.
Item 3 of 68After 1877Philorth House  AberdeenshireScotlandFireplace
Item 4 of 681878St Giles Cathedral  EdinburghScotlandRestoration of south transept
Item 5 of 681878St Paul's ChurchGalashiels SelkirkshireScotland 
Item 6 of 681879St Mary's Episcopal ChurchHamilton LanarkshireScotlandChancel extended
Item 7 of 681880Christ Episcopal Church RectoryDuns BerwickshireScotland 
Item 8 of 68c. 1880Volunteer Drill HallPeterhead AberdeenshireScotland 
Item 9 of 681881Old St Paul's Episcopal Church  EdinburghScotlandSucceeded to commission.
Item 10 of 681881St Giles Cathedral  EdinburghScotlandRestoration of nave and north transept.
Item 11 of 681881St Peter's Episcopal ChurchGalashiels SelkirkshireScotlandChancel, south aisle, hall and schools
Item 12 of 681882St Peter's Episcopal ChurchPeebles PeeblesshireScotlandChancel, organ chamber, vestry and porch
Item 13 of 681883Old Kirkyard, Memorial to Broun FamilyKirkoswald AyrshireScotland 
Item 14 of 681883St Andrew's ChurchPeebles PeeblesshireScotlandRestoration of medieval tower
Item 15 of 681883St Giles Cathedral  EdinburghScotlandVestry, session house, west door, north door, screen in north transept
Item 16 of 681884AuchgealRavelston EdinburghScotland 
Item 17 of 681884Church of the Holy SpiritDistington CumberlandEngland 
Item 18 of 681884ResidenceNorth Berwick East LothianScotland 
Item 19 of 681884St Giles Cathedral  EdinburghScotlandRoyal Pew
Item 20 of 681884Woodlands HouseGalashiels SelkirkshireScotlandExtensive additions
Item 21 of 681884Woodlands; also lodge, coachhouse, Rose Cottage and entrance gatewayGalashiels SelkirkshireScotlandRecasting of main house
Item 22 of 681885Government HouseHamilton?BermudaBermudaWest Indies 
Item 23 of 681885Holy Trinity CathedralHamiltonBermudaBermudaWest IndiesEastern half of the church.
Item 24 of 681885St Baldred's VillaNorth Berwick East LothianScotlandDate unknown
Item 25 of 681885St John the Baptist CathedralSt John's NewfoundlandCanadaReredos
Item 26 of 681886Edinburgh Municipal Buildings  EdinburghScotlandUnsuccessful competition design
Item 27 of 681886St Paul's ChurchGalashiels SelkirkshireScotlandAddition of spire
Item 28 of 681888Douglas Castle  LanarkshireScotlandChapel
Item 29 of 681889Craiglockhart ChurchCraiglockhart EdinburghScotlandChurch and tower
Item 30 of 681889Dalhousie Memorial ArchEdzell AngusScotland 
Item 31 of 681889Free LibraryGalashiels SelkirkshireScotlandAddition
Item 32 of 681889Old St Paul's Episcopal Church  EdinburghScotlandSouth end of nave - also altar and reredos in chancel at unspecified date
Item 33 of 681889St Peter's Church HallGalashiels SelkirkshireScotland 
Item 34 of 681890Bowland HouseWhitehill MidlothianScotlandAdditions to rear
Item 35 of 681890Holy Trinity Episcopal ChurchLamington LanarkshireScotlandAlterations
Item 36 of 681892Corstorphine Parish ChurchCorstorphine EdinburghScotlandProposed restoration - not executed until c.1903
Item 37 of 681892St Mark's Episcopal ChurchPortobello EdinburghScotlandAlterations
Item 38 of 681892St Mary's ChurchHaddington East LothianScotlandRestoration of nave; scheme for choir, transepts and tower; pulpit, font and west gallery
Item 39 of 681892Trinity College GlenalmondGlenalmond PerthshireScotlandRebuilding after fire of block between chapel and hall, new wing and laboratories
Item 40 of 681893Arbroath Parish ChurchArbroath AngusScotlandCompetition design for rebuilding - placed second
Item 41 of 681893Dalserf HouseDalserf LanarkshireScotlandAdditions - porch, billiard room etc
Item 42 of 681893Holy Trinity CathedralHamiltonBermudaBermudaWest IndiesNave
Item 43 of 681893Old St Paul's Episcopal Church  EdinburghScotlandTriptytch
Item 44 of 681894Colliston Castle  AngusScotlandAdditions
Item 45 of 681894Dalserf ChurchDalserf LanarkshireScotlandAlterations
Item 46 of 681894Masonic Temple   EdinburghScotlandDesign exhibited for new hall or chapter room?
Item 47 of 68After 1894Printing Works, Causewayside  EdinburghScotland 
Item 48 of 681896Holy Trinity Episcopal Church and Rectory, Kilbride HillDunoon ArgyllScotlandEnlargement
Item 49 of 681896St Baldred's Episcopal ChurchNorth Berwick East LothianScotlandTower
Item 50 of 681896Woodlands; also lodge, coachhouse, Rose Cottage and entrance gatewayGalashiels SelkirkshireScotlandLodge and stable offices
Item 51 of 681898Holy Cross Epicsopal ChurchDavidson's Mains EdinburghScotland 
Item 52 of 681898St Mary's Episcopal Cathedral  EdinburghScotlandFurnishing of Lady Chapel (Morning Chapel)
Item 53 of 681898St Mary's Episcopal Cathedral, Montgomery Memorial  EdinburghScotland 
Item 54 of 681898The HirselColdstream BerwickshireScotlandChapel and other additions
Item 55 of 681899 or 1900Holy Trinity Episcopal ChurchMelrose RoxburghshireScotlandChancel and transepts added
Item 56 of 681900Dalry House  EdinburghScotlandAddition of chapel and classrooms (to north east)
Item 57 of 681900The HirselColdstream BerwickshireScotlandStables - drawings indicate Hay & Henderson but other sources say Watherston & Sons - perhaps the latter were the contractors?
Item 58 of 68c. 1900Duart Lodge  EdinburghScotland 
Item 59 of 681901Holy Cross ParsonageDavidson's Mains EdinburghScotland 
Item 60 of 681901St Mary's Episcopal Cathedral, Montgomery Memorial  EdinburghScotlandOrgan console
Item 61 of 68c. 1901Memorial Pulpit to Rev J A Legh (?) CampbellCrieff PerthshireScotland 
Item 62 of 68Before 1902St James the Less Episcopal Church School and HallLeith EdinburghScotland 
Item 63 of 681903Coates Hall  EdinburghScotlandAlterations and additions, including residence
Item 64 of 681903Corstorphine Parish ChurchCorstorphine EdinburghScotlandRestoration
Item 65 of 681903Easter Coates House  EdinburghScotlandAlterations - recasting of north wing
Item 66 of 681903ParsonageMoffat DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 67 of 681904Old St Paul's Episcopal Church  EdinburghScotlandSeabury aisle
Item 68 of 681905Holy Trinity CathedralHamiltonBermudaBermudaWest IndiesTower


Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architectural practice:
Item 1 of 2Bailey, Rebecca M1996Scottish architects' papers: a source book Edinburgh: The Rutland Pressp212
Item 2 of 2Willingham, Allan1983Two Scots in Victoria: the architecture of Davidson and Henderson   

Archive References

The following archives hold material relating to this architectural practice:
 SourceArchive NameSource Catalogue No.Notes
Item 1 of 1National Monuments Record of Scotland/NMRS, RCAHMSHay and Henderson Collection