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Basic Biographical Details

Name: John Henderson
Designation: Architect
Born: 1 March 1804
Died: 27 June 1862
Bio Notes: John Henderson was born at The Den Nursery, Brechin on 1 March 1804, the son of one of Lord Panmure's gardeners at Brechin Castle, also John Henderson, and Agnes Thomson. He served his apprenticeship as a carpenter and after studying drawings and building construction and erecting the steeple of the parish church at Arbroath in 1831 spent some years as an assistant in the office of Thomas Hamilton until setting up on his own account in 1835. Much of his early work was in areas within Lord Panmure's influence or from family connections. He appears to have taken on an assistant, John Nicol, in about 1833 who remained with him until about 1836 or 37. Although expert in neo-Jacobean design from the start, Henderson's neo-Gothic work was at first was of a very non-academic Georgian Gothic kind; but from 1843, when he received the commission for Trinity College Glenalmond, he became the foremost and for some years the only native-born exponent of Tractarian Gothic in Scotland, principally in the Early English and Mid Decorated styles. He was one of the eight applicants for the post of head of the Edinburgh office of the Office of Works in 1848, though without success.

Henderson died at 7 Greenhill Park on 27 June 1862 and was buried at Grange. His wife, Hannah Matilda Exley (born 1 January 1821 at Hull), whom he had married on 4 December 1843, survived him, dying in Edinburgh on 12 December 1894. Their son George, a sixteen-year-old apprentice at the time of his father's death, was unable to continue the business. He completed his apprenticeship with David Cousin, a near-neighbour in Greenhill, who seems to have taken over at least some of the work in hand, though not the office records which were retained by his widow: Sir G G Scott took over at Glenalmond and, Cousin being a Free Church man, the Episcopall church building connection was lost to Scott's pupil Robert Rowand Anderson.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architect:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 71, Blenheim Place, Edinburgh, ScotlandBusiness1833 or 1834  
Item 2 of 76, Union Street, Edinburgh, ScotlandBusiness1834 or 18351835 or 1836 
Item 3 of 716, London Street, Edinburgh, ScotlandBusinessc. 18361841 or c. 1842 
Item 4 of 78, Duke Street, Edinburgh, ScotlandBusiness1842 or c. 18431845 or c. 1846 
Item 5 of 773, Queen Street, Edinburgh, ScotlandBusiness1846 or c. 18471851 or c. 1852 
Item 6 of 77, Hill Street, Edinburgh, ScotlandBusiness1852 or c. 1853c. 1862 
Item 7 of 7Greenhill Park, Edinburgh, ScotlandPrivate1859 or 18601862 

Employment and Training


The following individuals or organisations employed or trained this architect (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 1Thomas Hamiltonc. 18311835Assistant 

Employees or Pupils

The following individuals were employed or trained by this architect (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 5Alexander Davidson  Apprentice 
Item 2 of 5John Nicol c. 1836Assistant 
Item 3 of 5William Hay18441846Assistant 
Item 4 of 5James Milne Monroc. 1855c. 1862Apprentice 
Item 5 of 5George Henderson18611862Apprentice 

Buildings and Designs

This architect was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 107 Dunblane Cathedral, Bishop's throneDunblane PerthshireScotlandPresumably speculative reconstruction of what the Cathedral might have had as it was then a parish church
Item 2 of 107 Forth HotelBurntisland FifeScotlandconversion of former manse
Item 3 of 107 Manse of St John's ChapelMontrose AngusScotlandDesign perhaps not executed
Item 4 of 107 St Cuthbert's Parish Church, Monument to John Napier of Merchiston  EdinburghScotlandDesign for re-setting tablet?
Item 5 of 1071830sDenfieldArbroath AngusScotlandAttribution on stylistic grounds by David Walker - similarity of pinnacles over angle pilasters to Highland & Agricultural Society building in Edinburgh.
Item 6 of 1071831Arbroath Parish ChurchArbroath AngusScotlandSteeple
Item 7 of 1071831Kilmabreck Parish ChurchCreetown KirkcudbrightshireScotland 
Item 8 of 1071834Samuel Douglas Free SchoolNewton Stewart WigtownshireScotland 
Item 9 of 1071835New Pitsligo Episcopal ChurchNew Pitsligo AberdeenshireScotlandPossible attribution
Item 10 of 1071835St Andrew's ChurchGreenock RenfrewshireScotlandBuild/Construction
Item 11 of 10718361,3 George IV Bridge  EdinburghScotland 
Item 12 of 1071836Christ Church Episcopal ChurchMile End GlasgowScotland 
Item 13 of 1071836Morningside Parish ChurchMorningside EdinburghScotland 
Item 14 of 1071837Bannockburn Chapel of EaseBannockburn StirlingshireScotland 
Item 15 of 1071837Holy Trinity Episcopal Church  EdinburghScotlandOriginal church
Item 16 of 1071837Natural History MuseumMontrose AngusScotland 
Item 17 of 1071837Scott Monument  EdinburghScotlandUnsuccessful competition design exhibited
Item 18 of 1071837St Mary's ChurchDumfries DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 19 of 1071837Stable and Coachouse, GreenockGreenock RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 20 of 1071838Carnock Parish ChurchCarnock FifeScotland 
Item 21 of 1071838Fettercairn Parish Church and churchyardFettercairn KincardineshireScotlandTower and spire
Item 22 of 1071838Lady Glenorchy's ChurchCalton EdinburghScotland 
Item 23 of 1071838Mechanics InstituteBrechin AngusScotland 
Item 24 of 1071838Newhaven Parish ChurchNewhaven EdinburghScotland 
Item 25 of 1071838Tenements, 1-4 and 8 Granton SquareGranton EdinburghScotland 
Item 26 of 107c. 1838Granton Hotel  EdinburghScotland 
Item 27 of 1071839House and officesArbroath AngusScotland 
Item 28 of 1071839Mariners' Church of Scotland, CitadelLeith EdinburghScotland 
Item 29 of 1071839Panmure Testimonial, Camustane HillPanmure AngusScotland 
Item 30 of 107After 1839Niddrie Marischal Lodge and Gates  EdinburghScotland 
Item 31 of 107After 1839Turriff Episcopal Church, Monument to Bishop Alexander JollyTurriff AberdeenshireScotland 
Item 32 of 1071840Maryburgh ChurchMaryburgh Ross and CromartyScotland 
Item 33 of 1071840St Thomas's Church, hospital, school and manse complexLeith EdinburghScotland 
Item 34 of 107c. 1840Fraserburgh Episcopal ChurchFraserburgh AberdeenshireScotland 
Item 35 of 107c. 1840House at NewbattleNewbattle MidlothianScotland 
Item 36 of 1071841Burntisland Harbour, pier, engineering workshop and conversion of manse to hotelBurntisland FifeScotland 
Item 37 of 1071841North ChurchStirling StirlingshireScotland 
Item 38 of 1071842Church Hill House  EdinburghScotland 
Item 39 of 1071842Layout of Church Hill  EdinburghScotland 
Item 40 of 1071842Manse, Manse LaneBurntisland FifeScotlandDesign for new manse - not executed?
Item 41 of 1071843Burntisland Harbour, houses for superintendent and others connected with ferryBurntisland FifeScotland 
Item 42 of 1071843Forth HotelBurntisland FifeScotlandStables and office
Item 43 of 1071843Trinity College GlenalmondGlenalmond PerthshireScotlandAlso design of hall
Item 44 of 1071843Varrich, Churchill  EdinburghScotland 
Item 45 of 10718443, 5 Church Hill  EdinburghScotland 
Item 46 of 1071844Cuminestown Episcopal ChurchCuminestown AberdeenshireScotland 
Item 47 of 1071844St Devenick's ManseBanchory Devenick Aberdeenshire/KincardineshireScotland 
Item 48 of 1071844St Mary's Episcopal ChurchMontrose AngusScotland 
Item 49 of 1071844St Mary's Episcopal ChurchDunblane PerthshireScotlandAlso designed altar
Item 50 of 1071845Burntisland Town HallBurntisland FifeScotlandDesign for new town hall
Item 51 of 1071845Episcopal ChurchStirling StirlingshireScotland 
Item 52 of 1071845St Mary's Episcopal ChurchHamilton LanarkshireScotland 
Item 53 of 1071846Holy Trinity Episcopal ChurchMelrose RoxburghshireScotlandExecutant architect for Ferrey design?
Item 54 of 1071846St Columba's-by-the-Castle Episcopal Church  EdinburghScotland 
Item 55 of 1071847Hope Park developmentSt Andrews FifeScotlandFeuing plans (superseded by slightly revised plans by John Chesser after Henderson's death)
Item 56 of 1071847St Andrew's Episcopal ChapelFasque KincardineshireScotland 
Item 57 of 107c. 1847Rectory Fasque KincardineshireScotlandAlterations - HS attribution
Item 58 of 1071848Holyrood Free Church and School  EdinburghScotlandAdded church to school and fragment of church
Item 59 of 1071848Meggernie CastleGlenlyon PerthshireScotland 
Item 60 of 1071848St John's Episcopal ChurchCranstonhill GlasgowScotland 
Item 61 of 1071848St Philip's Episcopal Church, School, Hall and RectoryCatterline KincardineshireScotland 
Item 62 of 107c. 1848Cairnies (Old Mains) Farmhouse and SteadingGlenalmond PerthshireScotland 
Item 63 of 1071849All Saints Episcopal ChurchWoodhead AberdeenshireScotland 
Item 64 of 1071849Holy Trinity Episcopal Church and Rectory, Kilbride HillDunoon ArgyllScotland 
Item 65 of 1071849House, Greenhill Gardens  EdinburghScotland 
Item 66 of 1071850New Pitsligo Episcopal ChurchNew Pitsligo AberdeenshireScotlandAdditions
Item 67 of 1071850St Mary's Episcopal Church and schoolRatho EdinburghScotland 
Item 68 of 107c. 1850Madeira House, 28 Greenhill Gardens  EdinburghScotland 
Item 69 of 107c. 1850Mural monument to George Jardine and his son   ScotlandGeorge Jardine (the son) died 1850
Item 70 of 107c. 1850St Mary's Episcopal RectoryRatho EdinburghScotland 
Item 71 of 1071851Christ Church Episcopal Church, Rectory and SchoolLochgilphead ArgyllScotlandDrawings dated 1850-51
Item 72 of 107c. 1851West Linton School and Episcopal ChurchWest Linton PeeblesshireScotlandBuilding designed as both school and church.
Item 73 of 1071852Borthwick HallHeriot MidlothianScotland 
Item 74 of 1071852St Luke's Free Church  EdinburghScotland 
Item 75 of 1071852St Margaret's Episcopal ChurchMeigle PerthshireScotland 
Item 76 of 1071853Lady Elizabeth Ross Memorial, Kincardine ChurchyardArdgay Ross and CromartyScotland 
Item 77 of 1071853St Andrew's Episcopal School and diocesan libraryBrechin AngusScotland 
Item 78 of 1071853St Peter's Episcopal ChurchGalashiels SelkirkshireScotlandOriginal church
Item 79 of 1071853Villas, Greenhill Park  EdinburghScotland 
Item 80 of 1071853Villas, Greenhill Park  EdinburghScotland 
Item 81 of 1071854Ardgowan, St Michael's and All Angels Episcopal ChapelInverkip RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 82 of 1071854Brechin Castle and gate lodgeBrechin AngusScotlandAlterations and additions
Item 83 of 1071854Carse Gray HouseForfar AngusScotlandAdditions
Item 84 of 1071854Mural monument to Charles Lawson  Edinburgh?Scotland 
Item 85 of 1071854St Mary's Episcopal Church and RectoryArbroath AngusScotland 
Item 86 of 1071856Bridge over the Den to CemeteryBrechin AngusScotland 
Item 87 of 107After 1856Villa, 5 Greenhill Park  EdinburghScotland 
Item 88 of 107c. 1856Cemetery and Gateway to CemeteryBrechin AngusScotlandGateway - HS attribution
Item 89 of 1071857Gatehouse, GlenalmondGlenalmond PerthshireScotlandDesign, perhaps modified in execution
Item 90 of 1071857Holy Trinity Episcopal ChurchLamington LanarkshireScotland 
Item 91 of 1071857St Mary's Episcopal Church, Rectory and SchoolPort Glasgow RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 92 of 1071857St Mungo's Episcopal Church and RectoryEast Linton East LothianScotland 
Item 93 of 1071857St Saviour's Episcopal Church and RectoryBridge of Allan StirlingshireScotlandMust have submitted a scheme which was not accepted.
Item 94 of 1071857Tenements SchoolBrechin AngusScotland 
Item 95 of 1071858Christ Episcopal ChurchLanark LanarkshireScotland 
Item 96 of 1071858Greenhill FeuingGrennhill EdinburghScotland 
Item 97 of 1071858St Peter's Episcopal Church and RectoryMontrose AngusScotland 
Item 98 of 1071859Burgh Episcopal SchoolGalashiels SelkirkshireScotland 
Item 99 of 1071859India Buildings  EdinburghScotlandDesign only; job taken over by Cousin after Henderson's death
Item 100 of 107Before 1859St Margaret's CollegeCrieff PerthshireScotland 
Item 101 of 107c. 185942 Greenhill Gardens  EdinburghScotland 
Item 102 of 1071860St Baldred's Episcopal ChurchNorth Berwick East LothianScotlandAlso designed pulpit
Item 103 of 107c. 1860Holy Trinity ParsonageLamington LanarkshireScotland 
Item 104 of 1071861Headstone for Rev E R Edgar     
Item 105 of 1071862Middlebie ManseMiddlebie DumfriesshireScotlandRevised Crombie's design
Item 106 of 107Before 1862Royal HotelNorth Berwick East LothianScotland 
Item 107 of 107Before 1862Trinity College Glenalmond, LodgeGlenalmond PerthshireScotlandOriginal design


Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architect:
Item 1 of 7DNB Dictionary of National Biography   
Item 2 of 7Maclean, Allan1997The Scottish Episcopal Church and the Ecclesiological Movement 1840-1860v VIIIArchitectural Heritage, VIII, pp47-59 
Item 3 of 7Post Office Directories     
Item 4 of 7Pride, Glen L1999The Kingdom of Fife2nd EditionThe Rutland Pressp20, p45, p46
Item 5 of 7Scotlands People Website Wills & Testaments  Edinburgh Sheriff Court Inventories SC70/1/114 and Edinburgh Sheriff Court Wills SC70/4/84
Item 6 of 7Walker, Frank Arneil1986South Clyde Estuary: An Illustrated Architectural Guide to Inverclyde and Renfrew  p127, p143
Item 7 of 7Willingham, Allan1983Two Scots in Victoria: the architecture of Davidson and Henderson  Willingham draws on letters formerly in the possession of Mrs Elizabeth Stella Philliips, since destroyed by her executors.

Archive References

The following archives hold material relating to this architect:
 SourceArchive NameSource Catalogue No.Notes
Item 1 of 1National Monuments Record of Scotland/NMRS, RCAHMSHay and Henderson Collection