Basic Biographical Details

Name: Pugin & Pugin
Designation: Architectural practice
Started: Early 1870s
Bio Notes: The founder of the Pugin & Pugin practice was Edward Welby Pugin, born in London on 11 March 1834, eldest son of Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin and his second wife Louisa Burton. Brought up in his father's office, Edward was 'his right hand man' by the age of sixteen, keeping the practice going through his father's periodic fits of madness from February 1852 onwards. When his father died on 14 September of that year, Edward was eighteen. The sole beneficiary of his father's will was his third wife, Jane Knill, and on the advice of the stained glass manufacturer John Hardman Powell who had married Pugin's eldest daughter Anne, Jane Pugin moved both household and practice to Birmingham partly to be near their main patron the 17th Earl of Shrewsbury. For the Earl, Edward revised his father's designs very much in his style, but in 1856 the Earl died. The Pugin family resettled in Gordon Square, London, in the same year becoming sufficiently prosperous to resume full occupation of the Grange at Ramsgate by 1861.

In 1856 Edward succeeded in having himself appointed an additional assessor in the Lille Cathedral competition. Thereafter he began working in an individualistic French and Flemish gothic, often with strong polychromatic effects. His practice expanded rapidly and to cope with it he set up an additional office in Liverpool and formed a partnership with the Irishman James Murray in 1857. In 1860 he formed a second partnership with his brother-in-law George Coppinger Ashlin and opened a Dublin office for Irish work. The Murray partnership was, however, dissolved in 1860, Murray thereafter practising on his own account until his early death, and in 1862 Edward merged his practice with that of the older and well-established Joseph Aloysius Hansom. That partnership closed acrimoniously in the following year.

Edward Pugin was admitted FRIBA on 16 June 1862. Two years earlier in 1860 he had founded the South East Furniture Company to manufacture his designs, the management of it being largely in the hands of his brother Cuthbert. The break-up of his partnership with Ashlin in 1869 may have been related to a much more high-risk business venture, the Granville Hotel at Ramsgate, a vast hotel and hydropathic complex. This failed in 1873 leaving Pugin bankrupt with liabilities of 187,000. He left for the United States where he quickly obtained commissions for some thirty churches and a monastery in Cuba. The English and Scottish work in hand was continued by his brothers Cuthbert Welby Pugin, born to Louisa in 1840, and Peter Paul Pugin, born in 1851 to his father's third wife Jane Knill, both of whom had been assisting him since the 1860s and had recently been taken into partnership, the practice becoming Pugin & Pugin.

Edward Pugin died suddenly on 5 June 1875 as a result of overwork and 'injudicious use of chloral hydrate'. He was unmarried and the main responsibility for the practice passed to Peter Paul, Cuthbert being principally concerned with the furniture making and furnishing side of the family business. Although Peter Paul's offices remained in London and Liverpool his practice was largely Scottish through Charles Eyre. Eyre came of a landed Northumbrian family and had been a parish priest at Pugin's church at Newcastle; Stephen Eyre, one of Edward Pugin's clerk of works, was probably a relative. Charles Eyre was appointed administrator of the Catholic church in the Glasgow area from 1869 and Archbishop of Glasgow when the Catholic hierarchy was re-created in 1878. Although Peter Paul's earlier churches were strongly influenced by his father and brother, by the 1880s he had developed a very recognisable curvilinear Gothic style, usually in red sandstone with elaborate altarpieces in coloured marbles.

Peter Paul Pugin married the third daughter of the Catholic builder John Bird of Hammersmith in 1886. They had five children, but none entered the practice. Peter Paul died in March 1904, the firm being continued by his nephew Sebastian Pugin Powell, born in 1866, the son of John Hardman Powell and Anne Pugin, Peter Paul's eldest sister. Sebastian became a member of the firm in 1884, Cuthbert having withdrawn in 1860 to run the family's furniture workshops. It is not clear at what date Sebastian became a partner.

Cuthbert lived on in retirement at Ramsgate until March 1928. Sebastian Pugin Powell died in 1949, but the practice was continued by his cousin Charles Henry Cuthbert Purcell, born 1874, until his death in 1958.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architectural practice:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 225, Savile Row, London, EnglandBusiness1868 *  
Item 2 of 2Victoria Street, London, EnglandBusinessc. 1870(?)c. 1879(?) 

* earliest date known from documented sources.

Employment and Training

Employees or Pupils

The following individuals were employed or trained by this architectural practice (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 8Edward Welby PuginEarly 1870sBefore 1875Partner 
Item 2 of 8Cuthbert Welby PuginEarly 1870s1880Partner 
Item 3 of 8Peter Paul PuginEarly 1870s1904Partner 
Item 4 of 8Sebastian Pugin Powell18841889Apprentice 
Item 5 of 8Robert HarvieAfter 1887Before 1892Clerk of WorksCarried out seven churches for the firm
Item 6 of 8Sebastian Pugin Powell1889Before 1904Assistant 
Item 7 of 8Sebastian Pugin PowellBefore 1904Before 1949Partner 
Item 8 of 8Charles Henry Cuthbert Purcell1950s Partner 

Buildings and Designs

This architectural practice was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 81 St Patrick's School  DundeeScotlandOriginal building - date unknown
Item 2 of 811873St Mary and St Finnan RC ChurchGlenfinnan Inverness-shireScotland 
Item 3 of 811877St Mary RC ChurchCleland LanarkshireScotland 
Item 4 of 811878Franciscan Church and FriaryHutchesontown GlasgowScotlandChurch built
Item 5 of 811878St Benedict's AbbeyFort Augustus Inverness-shireScotlandCompleted conversion by Hansom including Abbey Church - also tower in east block, great staircase, chapter house etc added
Item 6 of 811880Benedictine Convent of the Perpetual Adoration, Corbelly HillDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandMain buildings and chapel (and reredos)
Item 7 of 811880School Chapel CrosshillCrosshill GlasgowScotlandproposed scheme
Item 8 of 81After 1880SS John Cantius and Nicholas RC ChurchBroxburn West LothianScotlandReredos and niche for sacraments - date not known
Item 9 of 811881Smyllum Orphanage ChapelLanark LanarkshireScotland 
Item 10 of 811881Smyllum Orphanage InstituteLanark LanarkshireScotland 
Item 11 of 811881St Francis Xavier RC ChurchCarfin LanarkshireScotland 
Item 12 of 811881St Mary's RC ChurchEskadale Inverness-shireScotlandChancel extended and stone altar added
Item 13 of 811881St Mary's RC PresbyteryCleland LanarkshireScotland 
Item 14 of 811882Our Lady and St Margaret RC Church and PresbyteryKinning Park GlasgowScotland 
Item 15 of 811882St Aloysius RC Church and PresbyterySpringburn GlasgowScotlandPresbytery
Item 16 of 811883Holy Family RC ChurchBellshill LanarkshireScotland 
Item 17 of 811883St Margaret RC ChurchJohnstone RenfrewshireScotlandEnlargement and reconstruction. Addition of transepts and sanctuary and new nave proposed, but not built
Item 18 of 811883St Mary's RC ChurchStirling StirlingshireScotlandDate in HS List
Item 19 of 811884RC ChurchAirdrie LanarkshireScotlandDesign only
Item 20 of 811885St John's RC Presbytery  GlasgowScotland 
Item 21 of 81c. 1885St Mary's RC ChurchFochabers MorayshireScotlandReredos
Item 22 of 811887RC School, Portland Street  GlasgowScotland 
Item 23 of 811887St Michael's RC Church and presbyteryLinlithgow West LothianScotland 
Item 24 of 811888RC School, Sandyfaulds Street  GlasgowScotland 
Item 25 of 811889Convent of Faithful Companions of JesusPaisley RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 26 of 811889St Andrew's RC Cathedral  GlasgowScotlandRenovation for use as Cathedral and church furnishings
Item 27 of 811889St Mary RC ChurchPaisley RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 28 of 811889St Peter's CollegeBearsden GlasgowScotland 
Item 29 of 811890Sacred Heart RC Presbytery  GlasgowScotland 
Item 30 of 811890Saltcoats RC ChapelSaltcoats AyrshireScotlandAltar and other fittings
Item 31 of 81Before 1890RC PresbyteryRutherglen LanarkshireScotland 
Item 32 of 81Before 1890RC PresbyteryMaryhill GlasgowScotland 
Item 33 of 81Before 1890RC SchoolsCrosshill GlasgowScotland 
Item 34 of 81Before 1890St Francis RC SchoolGorbals GlasgowScotland 
Item 35 of 81Before 1890St John's RC Schools  GlasgowScotland 
Item 36 of 81Before 1890St Margaret's RC Presbytery  GlasgowScotland 
Item 37 of 81c. 1890St Patrick RC Schools  DundeeScotland 
Item 38 of 811891Holy Family and St Ninian RC ChurchKirkintilloch DunbartonshireScotland 
Item 39 of 811891St Bridget RC ChurchBaillieston GlasgowScotland 
Item 40 of 811892Holy Redeemer Chapel School and PresbyteryClydebank Dunbartonshire Peter Paul Pugin designed Presbytery
Item 41 of 811892St Andrew's RC Cathedral  GlasgowScotlandMain altar and side altars
Item 42 of 811893St Agnes RC ChurchLambhill GlasgowScotland 
Item 43 of 811894St Aloysius RC ChurchChapelhall LanarkshireScotland 
Item 44 of 811895St Joseph RC ChurchBlantyre LanarkshireScotland 
Item 45 of 811895St Mary's RC Church and presbyteryLanark LanarkshireScotlandLady chapel altar
Item 46 of 811896St Augustine's RC Church and presbytery, LangloanCoatbridge LanarkshireScotland 
Item 47 of 811896St Gregory RC ChurchPreshome BanffshireScotlandNew sanctuary with reredos
Item 48 of 811896St Mary RC Church and presbytery, BarrowfieldCoatbridge LanarkshireScotland 
Item 49 of 811896St Patrick's RC ChurchCoatbridge LanarkshireScotland 
Item 50 of 81Before 1896St Patrick's RC Church, Presbytery and halls  DundeeScotlandDesign - not executed
Item 51 of 81c. 1896St Aloysius RC Church and PresbyterySpringburn GlasgowScotlandHigh altar
Item 52 of 811897St John RC Church  GlasgowScotland 
Item 53 of 811898St Patrick RC Church and PresbyteryAnderston GlasgowScotland 
Item 54 of 811898St Patrick RC Church and presbytery, ShieldmuirWishaw LanarkshireScotland 
Item 55 of 811899St Laurence's RC ChurchGreenock RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 56 of 811900Our Lady of Good Aid RC ChurchMotherwell LanarkshireScotlandBuilt original church
Item 57 of 811900St Joseph's RC Church  DundeeScotlandReredos and baldacchino
Item 58 of 811900St Mary Immaculate RC Church and PresbyteryPollokshaws GlasgowScotlandNorth aisle extended
Item 59 of 811900St Mary Star of the Sea RC ChurchLeith EdinburghScotlandAlterations - North aisle
Item 60 of 81c. 1900(?)St Joseph's RC ChurchWemyss Bay RenfrewshireScotlandDate uncertain
Item 61 of 81c. 1900St Patrick RC ChurchDumbarton DunbartonshireScotlandDesign only - superseded by Dunn & Hansom
Item 62 of 811901Holy Redeemer RC Church and PresbyteryClydebank DunbartonshireScotland 
Item 63 of 811901St Mary's RC Church and presbyteryLanark LanarkshireScotlandReredos and high altar
Item 64 of 811902St Peter's CollegeBearsden GlasgowScotlandChapel constructed
Item 65 of 811903St Joseph RC ChurchBlantyre LanarkshireScotlandDated 1905
Item 66 of 811903St Peter RC Church and PresbyteryDowanhill GlasgowScotland 
Item 67 of 811904St Andrew's RC Cathedral  GlasgowScotlandRemoval of galleries and insertion of sanctuary screens
Item 68 of 811904St Mary RC ChurchPaisley RenfrewshireScotlandAddition - plans dated
Item 69 of 811904St Mary's RC ChurchStirling StirlingshireScotlandDate in 'Buildings of Scotland' and Anson. However the 'Builder's Journal' suggests it had not been begun by late 1905.
Item 70 of 811904St Patrick RC ChurchShotts LanarkshireScotland 
Item 71 of 811905All Saints' RC ChurchAirdrie LanarkshireScotland 
Item 72 of 811905St Alphonsus RC Church and presbytery  GlasgowScotland 
Item 73 of 811909Holy Cross RC Church and presbyteryCrosshill GlasgowScotland 
Item 74 of 811909Notre Dame Training CollegeDowanhill GlasgowScotlandIn conjunction with Bruce and Hay
Item 75 of 811909St Peter RC Church and PresbyteryDowanhill GlasgowScotlandAdditions
Item 76 of 811911St Agnes RC ChurchLambhill GlasgowScotlandInteriors
Item 77 of 811911St Mary Star of the Sea RC ChurchLeith EdinburghScotlandAlterations - chancel, sacristy, chapels
Item 78 of 811926St Patrick RC ChurchDumbarton DunbartonshireScotlandAddition of belfry tower and mortuary chapel; also organ case 1927
Item 79 of 811935St Patrick RC ChurchDumbarton DunbartonshireScotlandNew sanctuary
Item 80 of 811955St Robert Bellarmine RC Church  GlasgowScotland 
Item 81 of 811956St Ninian's RC ChurchKnightswood GlasgowScotland 


Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architectural practice:
Item 1 of 6Anson, Peter1965Fashions in church furnishings2ndLondon 
Item 2 of 6Atterbury, Paul, et al.1996A W N Pugin Master of the Gothic Revival   
Item 3 of 6British Architectural Library, RIBA2001Directory of British Architects 1834-1914   
Item 4 of 6O'Donnell, Roderick The later PuginsChapter 20Pugin: a Gothic passion ed. Paul Attenbury and Clive Wainwright 
Item 5 of 6Walker, Frank Arneil1986South Clyde Estuary: An Illustrated Architectural Guide to Inverclyde and Renfrew  p30
Item 6 of 6Wedgwood, Alexandra1985A W N Pugin and the Pugin family   

Periodical References

The following periodicals contain references to this architectural practice:
 Periodical NameDateEditionPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 1Builder25 February 1955  p356