Basic Site Details

Name: Palace of Holyroodhouse
City or county: Edinburgh
Country: Scotland
Parish:  
Status: A listed
Grid ref:
Notes: List description notes that John Fowler was involved at some stage but does not make clear what his input was.

Chapel now demolished.

Robert Reid work:

SE portion rebuilt; SE quarter refloored, replastered, new woodwork, Duke of Hamiltpon's apartment woodwork cut out, new plaster and woodwork refinished. Also rebuilding part of the south wall forming the garden front of the palace tpowards the east, new roof over north west angle. Duke of Hamilton's (commendator's0 house removed; one of the south towers in common rublle completely rebuilt in ashlar, parapaets of towers renewed. South side refaced in ashlar. Alterations to interior cost £1945. Abbey Court almost completely taken down and rebuilt.

John Douglas repair work (abstract from article by Dimitris Theodossopoulos):

The collapse of the significant church of Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh in December 1768 is discussed as the result of the ill-conceived repair of the roof in 1760, i.e., the substitution of the timber trusses with closelyspaced diaphragm masonry walls that aggravated the delicate equilibrium of the vaults and the poor state of a building being mutilated over 250 years. This study interprets these repairs by demonstrating the authorship and partnership of the architect John Douglas with the mason-developer James McPherson, who combined architectural ambition (the aesthetics of a flagstone roof) with the (cheaper) option of diaphragms, which would not involve a wright. The detailed examination of the procurement, the process of the intervention, the collapse, and the limited impact of its aftermath, are framed in a wider technical and historical context in Edinburgh and Scotland, during a period marked by several failures of medieval churches, and reveals a poor understanding of a critical element in Gothic construction. Analysis of all public archive material available sheds light on key events of the case, and critical study of the work of the two partnersí attempts to identify the intentions of their project, whose limitations were inevitable once the partnership was formed.

Building Type Classification

The building is classified under the following categories:
 ClassificationOriginal classification?Notes
Item 1 of 1Palace  

Events

The following date-based events are associated with this building:
 FromToEvent typeNotes
Item 1 of 13   Ceiling of picture gallery renewed
Item 2 of 1316161617AdditionDecoration and furnishing of Chapel Royal.
Item 3 of 131633 Alterations and additions(?) 
Item 4 of 131663 Plans drawn upFor completion of second floor
Item 5 of 1316711678Alterations and additions 
Item 6 of 1317331734Repair 
Item 7 of 1317541757RepairTheo Dossopoulos indicates the repair work was carried out in 1760, leading to collapse in 1768.
Item 8 of 1318241834RepairRepairs and redecoration. Rebuilding of the south east quarter which had beendmaged by subsidence and refaced the south front (originally rubble) in ashlar.
Item 9 of 131842  Internal work
Item 10 of 1318551856 Refitting of the Throne Room, paintwork and paper by D R Hay
Item 11 of 1319101913 Interior work (under supervision of W T Oldrieve)
Item 12 of 131927  Throne Room, panelling and ceiling
Item 13 of 131930  King's Dressing Room and Evening Drawings Room, panelling

People

Design and Construction

The following individuals or organisations have carried out design/construction work. Where architects or practices worked together, matching letters appear beside their names in the Partnership Group column.
 NameRolePartnership GroupFromToNotes
Item 1 of 25Inigo JonesArchitectJ16161617Decoration and furnishing of Chapel Royal
Item 2 of 25William AytounMasonH1633 Working at Holyrood.
Item 3 of 25John Mylne juniorArchitectU1663 Drew up a survey of the second floor showing how it was to be completed. Not executed until after his death.
Item 4 of 25(Sir) William Bruce ArchitectS16711678With Robert Mylne
Item 5 of 25Robert MylneMasonT16711678Rebuilding under the direction of Sir William Bruce
Item 6 of 25William AdamArchitectW17331734Repairs
Item 7 of 25William AdamArchitectX1740 Decoration of apartment for 5th Duke of Hamilton
Item 8 of 25John DouglasArchitectZ17541760Repairs. With mason-developer James McPherson.
Item 9 of 25Robert ReidArchitectU18241834Repairs and redecoration. Rebuilding of the south east quarter which had been damaged by subsidence and refaced the south front (originally rubble) in ashlar. Parliamentary grant of £24,755 toward this.
Item 10 of 25H M Office of Works (later Ministry of Works, Department of the Environment and Property Services Agency)Architectural practiceB1842 Internal alterations with Nixon as Architect for Scotland
Item 11 of 25William NixonArchitectB1842 Internal alterations - as architect for Scotland in the Office of Works
Item 12 of 25H M Office of Works (later Ministry of Works, Department of the Environment and Property Services Agency)Architectural practiceC18551856Refitting of the Throne Room, paintwork and paper by D R Hay (Matheson as architect for Scotland in the Office of Works)
Item 13 of 25Robert MathesonArchitectC18551856Refitting of the Throne Room, paintwork and paper by D R Hay (Matheson as architect for Scotland in the Office of Works)
Item 14 of 25H M Office of Works (later Ministry of Works, Department of the Environment and Property Services Agency)Architectural practiceD1860 Replanning of 2nd floor as the Duke of Hamilton's and Marquess of Breadalbane's apartments (with Matheson as architect for Scotland)
Item 15 of 25Robert MathesonArchitectD1860 Replanning of 2nd floor as the Duke of Hamilton's and Marquess of Breadalbane's apartments (Matheson as architect for Scotland)
Item 16 of 25Charles Ernest JacksonArchitectE19101913(?)Decoration of West Drawing Room - as assistant to Oldrieve in H M Office of Works
Item 17 of 25H M Office of Works (later Ministry of Works, Department of the Environment and Property Services Agency)Architectural practiceE191019131980-30 United Services Museum, and 1930 King's Dressing Room
Item 18 of 25John Wilson PatersonArchitectE19101913Interior work (under supervision of W T Oldrieve), working as assistant in Office of Works (as architect for Scotland in Office of Works)
Item 19 of 25William Thomas Oldrieve (sometimes William Thomas Oldgrieve)ArchitectE19101913Supervised John Wilson Paterson's work
Item 20 of 25H M Office of Works (later Ministry of Works, Department of the Environment and Property Services Agency)Architectural practiceF1927 Panelling and ceiling in Throne Room
Item 21 of 25John Wilson PatersonArchitectF1927 Panelling and ceiling in Throne Room (as architect for Scotland in Office of Works)
Item 22 of 25H M Office of Works (later Ministry of Works, Department of the Environment and Property Services Agency)Architectural practiceGc. 1930 Evening Drawing Room and King's Wardrobe, panelling
Item 23 of 25John Wilson PatersonArchitectGc. 1930 Evening Drawing Room and King's Wardrobe, panelling (as architect for Scotland in Office of Works)
Item 24 of 25George HayArchitectH1968 Ceiling of picture gallery renewed - as architect in the Ministry of Public Buildings and Works
Item 25 of 25H M Office of Works (later Ministry of Works, Department of the Environment and Property Services Agency)Architectural practiceH1968 Ceiling of picture gallery renewed with George Hay as architect in the Ministry of Public Buildings and Work

Clients

The following individuals or organisations have commissioned work on this building/design:
 NameNotes
Item 1 of 2Charles II, KingClient for William Bruce work
Item 2 of 2Hamilton, 5th Duke ofClient for William Adam decoration of apartment

Related Buildings, Structures and Designs

Child Structures

This structure or site has the following component or child structures (click on an item to view details):
 Building NameNotes
Item 1 of 3Palace of Holyroodhouse, fountain in forecourtCarver - John Thomas.
Item 2 of 3Palace of Holyroodhouse, gatehouse and former guardroom 
Item 3 of 3Palace of Holyroodhouse, stables 

References

Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this building:
 Author(s)DateTitlePartPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 10Colvin, Howard2008A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600-1840 London: YUP. 4th edition 
Item 2 of 10Dunbar, John J1999Scottish Royal Palaces  pp55-74
Item 3 of 10Gifford, John, McWilliam, Colin and Walker, David M1984Edinburgh (The Buildings of Scotland) Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltdpp129, 144-146
Item 4 of 10Gow, Ian1987Elegance on a shoestring Country Life, 30 July 1987 
Item 5 of 10Gow, Ian2005The Palace of Holyroodhouse: official guidebook   
Item 6 of 10Imrie, J and Dunbar, J (eds.)1982Accounts of the Masters of Worksii Chapters lxxxvi-lxxxvii
Item 7 of 10McKean, Charles1992Edinburgh: an illustrated architectural guide  pp41-43
Item 8 of 10Mylne, R S The Master Masons to the Crown of Scotland  Chapter 9-10 (pp148-9)
Item 9 of 10Richardson, J S1978The Abbey and Palace of Holyroodhouse   
Item 10 of 10Theodossopoulos, Dimitris2016The Catastrophic Repairs of Holyrood Abbey Church in 1760v 10, issue 7International Journal of Architectural Heritage, Conservation, Analysis and Restoration 

Archive References

The following archives hold material relating to this building:
 SourceArchive nameSource catalogue no.Notes
Item 1 of 10Bodleian LibraryGough Maps and Documents39, f. 1v 
Item 2 of 10British LibraryEgerton MSS2870-1Drawings and contracts
Item 3 of 10Edinburgh University LibraryLaing ManuscriptsLaing II, 88 
Item 4 of 10Historic Environment ScotlandListed Buildings Register28022 
Item 5 of 10National ArchivesCalendar of State Papers Domestic1671, 295-6 
Item 6 of 10National Archives of Scotland (formerly SRO)Gifts and depositsGD 31/554John Adam v. The Duke of Hamilton, 1770
Item 7 of 10National Archives of Scotland (NAS)Holyroodhouse building accounts  
Item 8 of 10National Monuments Record of Scotland/NMRS, RCAHMSWatherston Collection EDD 4/187/1-2 (panelling in west drawing room)


Item 9 of 10National Records of Scotland (formerly SRO, later NAS)Ministry of Works files Includes General Report on Works executed at Holyroodhouse by Reid, 1836.
Item 10 of 10RIBA Archive, Victoria & Albert MuseumRIBA Nomination Papers Charles Ernest Jackson: L v24 no1986