Basic Biographical Details

Name: John Baxter
Designation: Architect
Died: c. 1770
Bio Notes: John Baxter was born about 1700-1710, probably in Edinburgh. He was a successful and highly esteemed master mason. An important patron was Sir John Clerk of Penicuik and through his influence Baxter built a number of large country houses in Scotland in the 1730s and 1740s. He was a fine draughtsman and he understood the plain Palladian style which was preferred by Sir John Clerk.

Mavisbank House was his earliest recorded contract which he began in 1723 ‘according to a design concocted between me [Clerk] and Mr [William] Adams’. Haddo House followed in 1732-5 again designed by William Adam and under Clerk’s direction and built by Baxter. A series of significant commissions followed in Renfrewshire, Wigtownshire and the Lothians.

By 1769 Baxter was in poor health and had more or less retired. His son, also John Baxter, wrote that his father ‘has given up business to me, ever since my return from Italy’. The date of his death is not certain but it must have been about 1770.

Buildings and Designs

This architect was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 101723Mavisbank House  EdinburghScotland 
Item 2 of 101732Haddo HouseHaddo/Methlick AberdeenshireScotland 
Item 3 of 101737Lochnell CastleBenderloch (near) ArgyllScotlandMay have been responsible for new house built to SE of earlier block
Item 4 of 101738Hawkhead Park  RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 5 of 101740Galloway House  WigtownshireScotlandBased work on designs by Douglas.
Item 6 of 101745Ormiston HallOrmiston East LothianScotland 
Item 7 of 101753Mayshade House  MidlothianScotland 
Item 8 of 101756Amisfield  East LothianScotlandEmployed to build the house to designs by Isaac Ware.
Item 9 of 101761Penicuik HousePenicuik MidlothianScotlandEmployed by Sir James Clerk as executant architect and builder
Item 10 of 10Before 177Glasserton House  WigtownshireScotlandRebuilding


Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architect:
Item 1 of 2Close, Rob and Riches, Anne2012The Buildings of Scotland: Ayrshire & Arran New Haven and London: Yale University Pressp756
Item 2 of 2Colvin, Howard2008A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600-1840 London: YUP. 4th edition