Basic Biographical Details

Name: England & Turnbull
Designation: Architectural practice
Started: After 1861
Ended: 1867 or 1869
Bio Notes: Thomas Turnbull was born in Glasgow in 1825, the only son of Joshua Turnbull, solicitor. He was orphaned at an early age and articled to a Turnbull cousin who was a house carpenter (his RIBA obituarist says 'to learn the building trade'), perhaps the same family as that to which Alexander Thomson's future partner Robert Turnbull belonged, in 1839. After completing his articles in 1842 Turnbull found a place in the office of David Bryce, first as a clerk of works and then as both clerk of works and draughtsman. Thereafter he found employment as a clerk of works with the architect-builders Arthur and George Holme in Liverpool, probably in anticipation of his emigration in 1851 to Melbourne, Australia where he practised in 'the digging townships' for nine years. In 1861 'attracted by the news from California' he sailed for San Francisco where he entered into a partnership with an established architect there, ____ England. England died in 1867 or 1869 (sources vary), and Turnbull continued the practice alone thereafter. During his time in San Francisco Turnbull was Hon Secretary of the Architectural Association there and designed Trinity Church, Market Street Presbyterian Church, Bancrofts printing works and 'a large number of warehouses and city residences'. His obituarist reports that they were responsible for 'many important buildings that were in existence until the recent earthquake' of 1868.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architectural practice:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 1San Francisco, California, United States of AmericaBusiness   

Employment and Training

Employees or Pupils

The following individuals were employed or trained by this architectural practice (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 1Thomas TurnbullAfter 1861Before 1869Partner 


Currently, there are no references for this architectural practice. The information has been derived from: the British Architectural Library / RIBA Directory of British Architects 1834-1914; Post Office Directories; and/or any sources listed under this individual's works.