Basic Biographical Details

Name: James Henry Gray
Designation: Architect
Born: 23 July 1885
Died: 17 August 1938
Bio Notes: James Henry Gray was born at 23 St Andrews Drive, Pollokshelds, Glasgow in 23 July 1885, the son of James Henry Gray, biscuit manufacturer, and his wife mary Harris White. The family was of old Quaker stoc. James junior was educated at Bootham School, York, where he excelled on the football field. In 1903 he was articled to Fred Rowntree, also a member of the Society of Friends, who had been based in London since the dissolution of his partnership with Malcolm Stark in 1899. In 1906 he moved to Glasgow as assistant to Alexander Nisbet Paterson of Campbell Douglas & Paterson, enabling him to study at the Glasgow School of Architecture. He returned to London in 1909, joining Niven & Wigglesworth as assistant. He passed the qualifying exam in 1910 and was admitted ARIBA on 27 February 1911, his proposers being Herbert Hardy Wigglesworth, David Barclay Niven and Rowntree. From 1912 to 1914 he worked as assistant with Watson & Salmond in Glasgow, and was taken into partnership in the latter year, the firm having won the competition for the extension of Glasgow City Chambers.

During the First World War Gray went with the Friends Ambulance Unit to France and Italy. He subsequently joined the Royal Artillery (Trench Mortar Battery) in which he reached the rank of Captain. In March 1918 he was taken prisoner and held in Germany but released in 1919. For some years after his return to Scotland he suffered from his experiences as a prisoner of war.

It was for the accomplished French Renaissance design of the extension to the City Chambers that in 1927 the firm - now Watson, Salmond & Gray - was awarded the first RIBA Scottish Architecture medal for the best city building completed within the preceding five years. Much of the work of the practice was in Glasgow but further afield they won commissions for factories and other works in the Midlands and the south west of Scotland. On his return he was taken into partnership in the firm of Watson & Salmond.

In 1925 Henry Edward Clifford retired and his practice was merged with that of Watson Salmond & Gray, making them architects to the Victoria Infirmary. Salmond was fairly well off and retired early in 1933 to concentrate on his musical interests, and John Watson went into semi-retirement in or about the same year, partly to give more time to RIAS business: he was President when he died in the Victoria Infirmary, to which he was architect, on 24 August 1936. Two years previously Salmond's place as partner was taken by Watson's son, John Watson, Junior (born 1903).

In 1936 Gray became seriously ill and his health did not recover. He sought Fellowship of the RIBA and was admitted on 19 July 1937, proposed by Andrew Graham Henderson, Launcelot Hugh Ross and Norman Aitken Dick, but died just over a year later on 17 August 1938 at White Rock Villa, Strone, leaving moveable estate of 5830 12s 11d. His usual address at that date was 27 Herriot Street, Pollokshields. He was survived by his wife and two daughters.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architect:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 4Ravensworth, Cathcart, Glasgow, ScotlandPrivate19061920 
Item 2 of 410, Hammersmith Terrace, London, EnglandPrivate1911 *  
Item 3 of 4242, West George Street, Glasgow, ScotlandBusinessBefore 1929After 1937 
Item 4 of 427, Herriet Street, Pollokshields, Glasgow, ScotlandPrivateBefore 19371938 

* earliest date known from documented sources.


Employment and Training

Employers

The following individuals or organisations employed or trained this architect (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 5Fred Rowntree19031906Apprentice 
Item 2 of 5Campbell Douglas & Paterson19061909AssistantAssistant to Alexander Nisbet Paterson
Item 3 of 5Niven & Wigglesworth19091911Assistant 
Item 4 of 5Watson & Salmond19121914Assistant 
Item 5 of 5Watson, Salmond & Gray19141936Partner 

RIBA

RIBA Proposers

The following individuals proposed this architect for RIBA membership (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate proposedNotes
Item 1 of 6Norman Aitken Dick19 July 1937for Fellowship
Item 2 of 6Andrew Graham Henderson19 July 1937for Fellowship
Item 3 of 6David Barclay Niven27 February 1911for Associateship
Item 4 of 6Launcelot Hugh Ross19 July 1937for Fellowship
Item 5 of 6Fred Rowntree27 February 1911for Associateship
Item 6 of 6Herbert Hardy Wigglesworth27 February 1911for Associateship

RIBA Proposals

This architect proposed the following individuals for RIBA membership (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate proposedNotes
Item 1 of 1William Ross7 March 1938for Fellowship

Buildings and Designs

This architect was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 371914Glasgow Municipal Buildings  GlasgowScotlandWorked on scheme for extension (won in competition by previous practice title of Watson & Salmond). Begun but never completed
Item 2 of 371914Tom-na-MonachanPitlochry PerthshireScotlandInterior work as assistant to Watson & Gray.
Item 3 of 371919Davidson Memorial Cottage HospitalGirvan AyrshireScotland 
Item 4 of 371920202 Bath Street  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 5 of 37June 1920House for Herr OswaldMilngavie DunbartonshireScotlandChauffeur's cottage
Item 6 of 37c. 1920Methodist HallsMaryhill GlasgowScotlandHS attribution
Item 7 of 371921Glasgow Municipal Buildings  GlasgowScotlandScheme for enlargement of council chamber with giant Corinthian portico on George Square, to match Banqueting Hall on George Street and to complement Burnet's war memorial; canvas mock-up proposed by council which Watson declined to agree to; unexecuted
Item 8 of 371922Castle LevanGourock RenfrewshireScotlandSurvey and alterations
Item 9 of 371922Cathkin HouseCarmunnock LanarkshireScotlandAlterations including entrance door
Item 10 of 371922Pollokshields Free ChurchPollokshields GlasgowScotlandAlterations and additions
Item 11 of 371922Waverley CinemaShawlands Cross GlasgowScotland 
Item 12 of 371923Eastern District Hospital, Nurses' Home  GlasgowScotlandExtension
Item 13 of 371923GracefieldPrestwick AyrshireScotland 
Item 14 of 37October 1923Bungalow for Charles GrayBridge of Weir RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 15 of 371925Cathcart Established Church and manse  GlasgowScotlandCompletion to Clifford's design
Item 16 of 371925Philipshill Auxiliary HospitalThorntonhall LanarkshireScotland 
Item 17 of 371925Victoria InfirmaryLangside GlasgowScotlandCompletion of new ward pavilion designed by H E Clifford
Item 18 of 371927101-103 St Vincent Street  GlasgowScotlandNew shop front
Item 19 of 371927Glenfeulan, chauffeur's cottageShandon DunbartonshireScotland 
Item 20 of 371927House for Mrs GrayTayvallich ArgyllScotland 
Item 21 of 371928Philipshill Auxiliary Hospital, nurses' homeThorntonhall GlasgowScotland 
Item 22 of 371928Scottish Ice Rink  GlasgowScotland 
Item 23 of 371929Glasgow Academy  GlasgowScotlandScience block
Item 24 of 371929House at WhitecraigsWhitecraigs GlasgowScotland 
Item 25 of 371929Unspecified bank and offices   ScotlandCompetition design (presumably)
Item 26 of 371930Victoria InfirmaryLangside GlasgowScotlandPaying patients' annexe
Item 27 of 371930Victoria Infirmary, private annexeLangside GlasgowScotland 
Item 28 of 371931Philipshill Auxiliary Hospital, John Innes Memorial ChapelThorntonhall LanarkshireScotland 
Item 29 of 371934Biscuit Factory of Gray, Dunn & Co, Kinning ParkKinning Park GlasgowScotlandSouth block
Item 30 of 371934ChurchParkhead GlasgowScotland 
Item 31 of 371934Victoria Infirmary, nurses' homeLangside GlasgowScotlandExtension
Item 32 of 371935National Bank of Scotland, St Enoch Square  GlasgowScotlandReconstruction and new banking hall
Item 33 of 371935Victoria InfirmaryLangside GlasgowScotlandPaying patients annexe and nurses home both extended
Item 34 of 371935Victoria Infirmary, private annexeLangside GlasgowScotlandExtension
Item 35 of 371935Victoria Infirmary, X-ray department and private wingLangside GlasgowScotland 
Item 36 of 3719363, 4 and 5 Claremont Terrace  GlasgowScotlandAlterations to no 3 for Woodland Nursing Home
Item 37 of 371936House for Miss SomervilleHelensburgh DunbartonshireScotland 

References

Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architect:
 Author(s)DateTitlePartPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 3British Architectural Library, RIBA2001Directory of British Architects 1834-1914   
Item 2 of 3Post Office Directories     
Item 3 of 3Who's Who in Architecture1914    

Periodical References

The following periodicals contain references to this architect:
 Periodical NameDateEditionPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 1RIBA Journal15 August 1938v45London: Royal Institute of British Architectsp943 - obituary

Archive References

The following archives hold material relating to this architect:
 SourceArchive NameSource Catalogue No.Notes
Item 1 of 2Professor David M Walker personal archiveProfessor David M Walker, notes and collection of archive material Additional information from Iain Paterson
Item 2 of 2RIBA Archive, Victoria & Albert MuseumRIBA Nomination Papers A v19 no2138; F no3409 (box 22)