Basic Biographical Details

Name: James Salmon & Son
Designation: Architectural practice
Started: 1872
Ended: November 1903
Bio Notes: James Salmon was born in Glasgow on 11 October 1805, the son of John Salmon, a weaver and merchant at Bonhill, Dunbartonshire and his wife Margaret Jackson. He practised in Glasgow from c.1825 and worked in partnership with Robert Black, architect to the Union Bank, from 1843 to c.1854. He married Helen Russell (1817-81) in Edinburgh on 19 March 1837. Of their sons, the younger, James (b. 19 June 1853), trained as an accountant and settled in Australia in 1882, returning only briefly to visit the family in 1887. The elder, William Forrest Salmon, was born in 1843 and sent to the office of James Smith in or about 1857 to train as an architect. There he became acquainted with William Leiper, William Scott Morton and the decorative artist James Moyr Smith, then engaged on the lavish interior work of Overtoun, Dumbarton. On completing his articles Forrest followed Scott Morton to London, securing a place in the office of George Gilbert Scott. He returned to Glasgow in or about 1866 and became a partner in the firm in 1867 or 1868 along with James Ritchie who had been a senior assistant in the office since at least 1862, the practice name becoming Salmon Son & Ritchie. This partnership was dissolved in 1872, the practice name now becoming James Salmon & Son.

In 1868 James Salmon became first President of the newly founded Glasgow Institute of Architects, Alexander Thomson being his Vice-President, and together with his son Forrest was admitted FRIBA on 4 December 1876. They were amongst the first recruits in Charles Barry Junior and John Honeyman's campaign to extend the Scottish membership, their third proposer being Thomas Leverton Donaldson who had Ayrshire connections.

In the meantime, on 12 June 1872 William Forrest Salmon had married Jessie Alexander (b. 1843) at Dalry House, Edinburgh, the home of William Scott Morton who had married Jessie's elder sister Elizabeth (Eliza) in 1867. Jessie died suddenly in Edinburgh on 5 January 1887, while staying with the Scott Mortons. She left two sons - James, born on 13 April 1873 at 12 Seton Terrace, Glasgow, and Hugh, born 16 November 1874. James was initially educated privately and sent to Glasgow High School in September 1883, remaining there until 1888 when he joined the family firm for two years.

The Salmons attracted notable pupils in James Marjoribanks MacLaren and George Washington Browne. Like Leiper, Forrest retained his links with London which were greatly strengthened by the Scott Mortons who expanded their business first to the capital and then in 1889 to New York. These links brought the Salmons into an even wider artistic circle, Forrest's sister Helen Russell Salmon marrying the Yorkshire-born animal painter Tom Hunt, and among their many friends was the London Swedish architectural draughtsman Axel Haig who had accompanied Forrest on his first visit to Italy.

James Salmon (Senior) died on 5 June 1888 when walking home after giving one of his celebrated after-dinner speeches: he also had some reputation as a poet, having written a long pastoral comedy, 'Gowandean', which was illustrated by his friend Sir Daniel Macnee. He left moveable estate of 2,559 19s. 11d.. William Forrest Salmon thereafter continued the practice under the same name.

In 1890 James (Junior) was sent to Leiper's office to complete his apprenticeship, attending the classes at Glasgow School of Art for the unusually extended period of seven years, 1889-95. He left Leiper's office in 1894 at the end of his articles. Leiper's influence on Salmon was to remain marked in both commercial and domestic work. As a twenty-first birthday present Forrest sent him on a Grand Tour of the continent which is partly chronicled in watercolours in the Salmon collection at NMRS made between April and July of that year.

James Junior returned to the family firm in March 1895. By that time, John Gaff Gillespie (b. 1870) was in charge of most of the design work. Gillespie had been articled to James Milne Monro c. 1884, concurrently attending classes at Glasgow School of Art, and had won the Glasgow Institute of Architects prize in 1889 jointly with Charles Rennie Mackintosh. This brought him to the notice of Forrest Salmon who engaged him in 1891. Like Mackintosh at Honeyman & Keppie, Gillespie was given design responsibility very early, notably at the free Flemish Renaissance Scottish Temperance League building in 1893 and the West of Scotland Convalescent Seaside Homes at Dunoon in 1895. In that same year, Gillespie was taken into partnership, the everyday work of the practice having grown as a result of Forrest having secured some of the business of the British Linen Bank, whose architects were usually J M Dick Peddie & Washington Browne.

James Junior worked under his father and Gillespie for rather more than two years, being given much of the design responsibility for Mercantile Chambers on Bothwell Street, a huge project in which the Salmons had a financial interest and which was to become their office. He became a partner in 1898, but for the next few years and even beyond the individual design responsibilities of Gillespie and James Junior are not always easy to separate. Their names were not acknowledged in the practice title until November 1903 when the firm became Salmon Son & Gillespie.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architectural practice:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 2197, St Vincent Street, Glasgow, ScotlandBusinessBefore 1888After 1893Also the address of James Salmon
Item 2 of 2Mercantile Chambers/53, Bothwell Street, Glasgow, ScotlandBusinessc. 1898November 1903 

Employment and Training

Employees or Pupils

The following individuals were employed or trained by this architectural practice (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 24George Washington Browne18721873Apprentice 
Item 2 of 24James Marjoribanks MacLaren18721873Assistant(?) 
Item 3 of 24James Salmon (senior)18721888Partner 
Item 4 of 24William Forrest Salmon1872November 1903Partner 
Item 5 of 24John Campbell Turner Murray18741878Apprentice 
Item 6 of 24Andrew Whitford Anderson18741879Apprentice 
Item 7 of 24Alexander Cunningham Forrester18791881Assistant 
Item 8 of 24James Richard Fleming18801884Apprentice 
Item 9 of 24James Richard Fleming18841885Draughtsman 
Item 10 of 24John White1 August 18851889Apprentice 
Item 11 of 24James Salmon (junior)18881890Apprentice 
Item 12 of 24John White1889c. 1894Chief Draughtsman 
Item 13 of 24Hugh Alexander SalmonAfter 1890Before 1894Apprentice 
Item 14 of 24Frank H SouthornBefore 1890After 1891Assistant 
Item 15 of 24John Gaff Gillespie1891November 1903Partner 
Item 16 of 24Walter Stephen Tucker1 October 18941 October 1897ApprenticeNB at this time James Salmon Junior and John Gaff Gillespie were in the James Salmon partnership though their names do not appear in the title
Item 17 of 24John Bothwell Steel18951900Apprentice 
Item 18 of 24James Salmon (junior)March 18951898Assistant(?) 
Item 19 of 24Walter Stephen Tucker1 October 1897July 1899ImproverNB at this time James Salmon Junior and John Gaff Gillespie were in the James Salmon partnership though their names do not appear in the title
Item 20 of 24William Alexander Kidd1898November 1903Apprentice 
Item 21 of 24James Salmon (junior)1898November 1903Partner 
Item 22 of 24John Whitelaw Lockhart1899November 1903Assistant 
Item 23 of 24Vernon Constable15 June 1900November 1903Apprentice 
Item 24 of 24Archibald Scott1 March 1903November 1903Draughtsman 

Buildings and Designs

This architectural practice was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 961862St John's ChurchOakshaw, Paisley Renfrewshire  
Item 2 of 961869Greenock InfirmaryGreenock RenfrewshireScotlandEnlargement
Item 3 of 961872Barony Parochial AsylumLenzie LanarkshireScotlandCompetition won under practice of Salmon, Son & Ritchie; completed under James Salmon & Son
Item 4 of 961874Dennistoun Free ChurchDennistoun GlasgowScotland 
Item 5 of 961874Prestwick Free ChurchPrestwick AyrshireScotlandOriginal building
Item 6 of 961874St Andrew's Parish Church  GlasgowScotlandReplacement of pews
Item 7 of 961875Camden Street School  GlasgowScotland 
Item 8 of 961875Crookston Street School  GlasgowScotland 
Item 9 of 961875Greenside School  GlasgowScotland 
Item 10 of 961875Lambhill Public School  GlasgowScotland 
Item 11 of 961875Oatlands SchoolOatlands GlasgowScotland 
Item 12 of 96Before 1876Mansion for Mr ClarkPaisley (near) RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 13 of 961877Cranstonhill Bakeries  GlasgowScotlandFurther buildings
Item 14 of 96June 1877Trades House  GlasgowScotlandPlans for new building submitted for invited competition; subsequently abandoned after failure to reach a decision
Item 15 of 961879New Club  GlasgowScotland 
Item 16 of 961880Glasgow Municipal Buildings  GlasgowScotland1st competition design
Item 17 of 961881Dennistoun SchoolDennistoun GlasgowScotland 
Item 18 of 961882Trades House  GlasgowScotlandEntered second competition for new building on the site - not successful
Item 19 of 961884Broomhill HouseKirkintilloch DunbartonshireScotlandAlterations and additions - east wing and end tower with cupola
Item 20 of 961889Allan Glen's School  GlasgowScotlandExtension - new technical block
Item 21 of 961889Gourlay Street Established ChurchSpringburn GlasgowScotland 
Item 22 of 961890Dennistoun Estate, sections of Finlay DriveDennistoun GlasgowScotland 
Item 23 of 961890Offices, West George Street  GlasgowScotland 
Item 24 of 961891Alliance ChurchStrone ArgyllScotlandAlterations and additions
Item 25 of 961891Barony Parochial AsylumLenzie LanarkshireScotlandAdditions - two-storey central block and towers
Item 26 of 961891Old Aisle Cemetery, Monument to Miss Beatrice ClugstonKirkintilloch DunbartonshireScotland 
Item 27 of 961891Whitehill Street SchoolDennistoun GlasgowScotland 
Item 28 of 961891Whitevale Bowling ClubDennistoun GlasgowScotland 
Item 29 of 961892Clydebank Municipal BuildingsClydebank DunbartonshireScotlandCompetition design - not successful
Item 30 of 961892Deaf and Dumb InstituteLangside GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 31 of 961892Gallowhill HousePaisley RenfrewshireScotlandAdditions and extensive internal alterations
Item 32 of 961892Holburn Sausage Factory  GlasgowScotland 
Item 33 of 961892Tenements, Shaftsbury Street  GlasgowScotlandAddition of toilets
Item 34 of 961892Workshops for George Sellars  GlasgowScotland 
Item 35 of 96c. 1892Wilson's Colosseum West End branch  GlasgowScotland 
Item 36 of 961893Scottish Temperance League building  GlasgowScotlandOriginal building
Item 37 of 961894British Linen Bank  GlasgowScotlandDrawings signed by William Forrest Salmon
Item 38 of 961894Broomhill HouseKirkintilloch DunbartonshireScotlandAddition of west wing
Item 39 of 961894Marine HotelTroon AyrshireScotland 
Item 40 of 961894Office and chimney stalk for Porteous & Crawford  GlasgowScotland 
Item 41 of 961894Whitehill Street SchoolDennistoun GlasgowScotlandLaundry, workshops and gymnasium added
Item 42 of 96c. 1894House, Onslow DriveDennistoun GlasgowScotlandHugh Alexander Salmon apparently responsible for design, at end of his apprenticeship
Item 43 of 961895Dennistoun Infant School, drill hall and workshopsDennistoun GlasgowScotland 
Item 44 of 961895Dunoon HydropathicDunoon ArgyllScotlandExtensive new buildings
Item 45 of 961895Higginbotham's Springfield Works  GlasgowScotland 
Item 46 of 961895Nurses' Home  GlasgowScotlandExtension
Item 47 of 961895Premises for D P Menzies  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 48 of 961895Proposed shooting lodge   ScotlandSketch designs
Item 49 of 96After 1895(?)House for Archibald WalkerLenzie LanarkshireScotlandPossibly responsible (see Notes)
Item 50 of 96After 1895(?)Interior work for R Hunter Craig MP   ScotlandExact date not known, therefore it is not clear whether it was done under James Salmon & Son or Salmon Son & Gillespie
Item 51 of 961896Deaf and Dumb InstituteLangside GlasgowScotlandEarn Cottage and Boys' Home and alterations to rear classrooms
Item 52 of 961896Glasgow School of Art  GlasgowScotlandUnsuccessful competition design
Item 53 of 961896Scheme for villa     
Item 54 of 961896Tenements, Rose Street  GlasgowScotlandAddition of toilet accommodation
Item 55 of 96189722 Park Circus  GlasgowScotlandInteriors - internal alterations, including billiard room (1905)
Item 56 of 961897British Linen BankGovan Cross GlasgowScotland 
Item 57 of 961897Glasgow Rubber WorksNorth Kelvinside GlasgowScotlandAddition
Item 58 of 961897Mercantile Chambers  GlasgowScotland 
Item 59 of 961897Post OfficeGovan Cross GlasgowScotland 
Item 60 of 961898Bakery for J & B Stevenson  GlasgowScotlandVan shed and stables
Item 61 of 961898Glasgow International Exhibition of 1901Kelvingrove GlasgowScotlandCompetition design - unplaced
Item 62 of 961898GowandeanLochgoilhead ArgyllScotlandAlterations and additions
Item 63 of 961898Higginbotham's Springfield Works  GlasgowScotlandAdditions
Item 64 of 961898RowantreehillKilmacolm/Kilmalcolm RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 65 of 961898St Andrew's Free Church Hall  GlasgowScotland 
Item 66 of 961898St Vincent Chambers  GlasgowScotland 
Item 67 of 961898Village HallLochgoilhead ArgyllScotland 
Item 68 of 961899British Linen Bank and TenementHutchesontown GlasgowScotland 
Item 69 of 961899Glasgow Savings BankAnderston Cross GlasgowScotland 
Item 70 of 961899Shop, Union Street  GlasgowScotlandAlterations to shop and basement foundation
Item 71 of 961899Tenements, Charlotte Street  GlasgowScotlandToilet additions
Item 72 of 961899Tenements, High Street and Duke Street  GlasgowScotlandCompetition design - unsuccessful
Item 73 of 961900Eastern District Hospital  GlasgowScotlandCompetition design - not successful
Item 74 of 961900House, 12 University Gardens  GlasgowScotland 
Item 75 of 961900Offices, West Regent Street  GlasgowScotlandAlterations and conversion to tearooms and restaurant
Item 76 of 961900Semi-detached block of houses  GlasgowScotland 
Item 77 of 961900Singer Manufacturing Company WorksKilbowie DunbartonshireScotlandAlterations to offices
Item 78 of 96c. 1900Municipal Offices and bankOban? Argyll?ScotlandSketch design
Item 79 of 96Late 1900 or early 1901Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College  GlasgowScotlandCompetition design - unsuccessful
Item 80 of 961901Art Nouveau archway     
Item 81 of 961901Deaf and Dumb InstituteLangside GlasgowScotlandAlterations to Earn Cottage and Boys' Home
Item 82 of 961901Glasgow International Exhibition of 1901, electric fire and clock overmantelKelvingrove Park GlasgowScotland 
Item 83 of 961901Lloyd Morris Memorial ChurchOatlands GlasgowScotland 
Item 84 of 961901Marine HotelTroon AyrshireScotlandAddition, forming L Plan
Item 85 of 961901Shop, Union Street  GlasgowScotlandAlterations to shopfront
Item 86 of 961901Tenements, Dale StreetBridgeton GlasgowScotlandToilet additions
Item 87 of 96c. 1901Newlands Bowling Club, clubhouseLandside GlasgowScotland 
Item 88 of 96190214-15 (or 13 and 14) Woodlands Terrace  GlasgowScotlandExtension and internal remodelling
Item 89 of 961902Barony Parochial AsylumLenzie LanarkshireScotlandDesign for a village asylum - not built
Item 90 of 961902Barony Parochial AsylumLenzie LanarkshireScotlandNurses' quarters and pathological unit
Item 91 of 961902British Linen Bank Head Office  GlasgowScotlandAlterations, additional floors and corner dome
Item 92 of 961902Carnegie Public LibraryRutherglen LanarkshireScotlandCompetition entry - unsuccessful
Item 93 of 961902Newton Park SchoolAyr AyrshireScotlandCompetition entry - unsuccessful
Item 94 of 961902Three large office blocks  GlasgowScotlandProposals only
Item 95 of 961902Whitehill Street SchoolDennistoun GlasgowScotlandThree storey classroom extension
Item 96 of 961903British Linen Bank  GlasgowScotlandAlterations

References

Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architectural practice:
 Author(s)DateTitlePartPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 3Walker, David M1966Salmon, Son, Grandson and Gillespie Scottish Art Review, vol. X, no. 3, pp. 17-29 
Item 2 of 3Walker, David W1995The Salmon Collection Unpublished: copy in NMRSDSA text is adapted from this source
Item 3 of 3Walker, Frank Arneil1986South Clyde Estuary: An Illustrated Architectural Guide to Inverclyde and Renfrew  p23