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Basic Biographical Details

Name: Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Designation: Architect
Born: 7 June 1868
Died: 10 December 1928
Bio Notes: Charles Rennie Mackintosh (originally spelled McIntosh) was born at 70 Parson Street, Glasgow, on 7 June 1868, the second of eleven children of William McIntosh, a police inspector who later rose to be a superintendent, and his wife Margaret Rennie who came from Ayr. From birth he had a contracted sinew in one foot which later in life resulted in a limp.

In 1874 the McIntosh family moved to 2 Firpark Street, Dennistoun, from which William McIntosh rented part of the grounds of Golfhill House. There he grew flowers in which his family were encouraged to take an interest, the origin of Mackintosh's life-long interest in botanical forms as a subject matter for the watercolours and sources for his decorative work. At the age of seven Mackintosh was sent first to Reid's School, and then to Alan Glen's, despite suffering from dyslexia. There a chill on the sportsfield resulted in a slight droop of the right eyelid visible in some photographs.

In 1884 Mackintosh was articled to John Hutchison, a Paisley architect who had settled in Glasgow. The office was then at 107 St Vincent Street, which was owned by Hutchison's brother James, who had a furniture shop there: this early acquaintance with that trade may have had some bearing on Mackintosh's role as a furniture designer. The office soon moved to better premises at 124 St Vincent Street where Hutchison began to attract much larger commissions: these commenced with Wylie Hill's department store in Buchanan Street, the detail design work of which was now in the hands of Andrew Black, an articled pupil of Hutchison who had risen to chief assistant. This building had refined Early Renaissance detail in which Mackintosh probably had a hand; he had distinguished himself at Glasgow School of Art where he studied under Thomas Smith and became acquainted with John James Burnet as a visiting lecturer and tutor. At the School Mackintosh featured regularly in the prize lists, culminating in a South Kensington bronze medal for 'a mountain chapel' and a book prize for 'a presbyterian church' in 1888 and 1889 respectively. In the latter year, probably April although he did not appear in the office books until July, these awards brought Mackintosh a place in the newly formed partnership of John Honeyman and John Keppie at 140 Bath Street; and in the following year, 1890, he won another major award, the South Kensington National and Queen's Prize, the subject being a Science and Art Museum. This was a French Beaux-Arts scheme, close to Burnet's style in the early 1880s, and may have reflected designs Keppie himself had made during his time at the Ecole in 1884-85. In September of the same year Mackintosh won the Alexander Thomson travelling scholarship with a design for a public hall, neo-Greek as expected by the Thomson trustees although he himself had by then come to regard classical architecture as 'foreign in spirit and far away' in a lecture on Scottish architecture given in February of that year. He set out for Italy on 21 March 1891 and sketched intensively in Naples, Sicily, Umbria and Tuscany, returning in July with a great many sketches but none of the highly finished studies the trustees had probably been expecting to see.

At Honeyman and Keppie's Mackintosh became a close friend of Keppie and of Herbert McNair who had joined the office in 1888 and whose family had links with Honeyman. His skill in draughtsmanship quickly won him an exceptional position in the office: He contributed much of the detailed draughtsmanship to Honeyman and Keppie's separate submissions for Kelvingrove Art Gallery and the Manchester Technical Schools; and when Honeyman and Keppie won places in the second tier of the Art Gallery competition they submitted a completely new joint design which was patently drawn out by Mackintosh and incorporated many features from his Italian sketch books. It did not win, but the enthusiasm for it nearly resulted in Waterhouse's recommendation that John William Simpson & Milner Allen be appointed being overturned. From that point onwards Honeyman and Keppie were content to let Mackintosh become the lead designer in the practice, and even sign the drawings in the case of the addition to Glasgow Art Club. Within the next few years Mackintosh had had a very considerable hand in the design of Queen Margaret College and the competition design for the Royal Insurance building, both in Glasgow, and according to a letter written to Hermann Muthesius, he had wholly designed the Glasgow Herald Building in 1893-95. All of these had Scots Renaissance elements of Burnetian inspiration, although the tower of the Herald building derived from that of James MacLaren’s Stirling High School, and the corner dome of the Royal Insurance design was drawn from Belcher; also in some degree Burnetian was his Martyrs School, Glasgow of 1895 which had Japanese roof details. These were apparently prompted by Sellars's effective use of them at the Glasgow International Exhibition buildings in 1888 since Mackintosh's sketch of them has recently been found, but it is also known that Mackintosh was familiar with the relevant volumes of Japanese art and architecture at Glasgow School of Art.

In 1892-93 Mackintosh delivered two papers on contemporary architecture. The first of these was drawn from Ruskin and Baldwin Brown and rejected not only the temple-based architecture of the Thomson, Honeyman, Barclay and Sellars school but the entire spectrum of Renaissance architecture then in vogue. It also argued against the integrated eclecticism of his own Kelvingrove design on the grounds that one style must be weakened by the introduction of another. The second lecture drew heavily on Lethaby's 'Architecture Mysticism and Myth'. By the time it was given Mackintosh's circle had extended to the Symbolist Movement artists Frances and Margaret Macdonald as well as Agnes Raeburn, Janet Aitken, Kate Cameron and Keppie's sister Jessie, a group which had called itself The Immortals and weekended in two bungalows - 'The Roaring Camp'- rented by John Keppie at Dunure. The influence of the Macdonald sisters in particular was reflected in Mackintosh's symbolist watercolour, the Harvest Moon, painted in 1892, and in a number of items of graphic art.

In September 1894 Mackintosh set off on the first on a number of English study tours in search of a back-to-first principles arts and crafts vernacular honesty. These quickly resulted in a synthesis of English and Scottish vernacular which made its first appearance in a small job, the reconstruction of the Inn at Lennoxtown in 1895, the designs for which were not carried out. The concept was not entirely new, as it had been pioneered by James MacLaren and Dunn & Watson at Fortingall, and their work had in turn formed the inspiration for the early Colinton houses of their assistant Lorimer. Of the Fortingall buildings Mackintosh would be aware through the Architectural Illumination Society which published them in 'The Architect' in 1891-92, even if he never went there.

In 1893 the Glasgow School of Art withdrew from the Kelvingrove Art Gallery project and its head, Francis Newbery inspected the new art schools at Birmingham and Manchester to prepare a brief for a new site in Renfrew Street which was acquired in 1895. This brief was issued to selected competitors in June 1896 and together with the tight cost limit must have had considerable influence on all the designs submitted; the studios had to be north facing on the Renfrew Street frontage and not only their sizes but the dimensions of their windows were specified. The competition was won by Honeyman & Keppie in January 1897 with a design by Mackintosh which had plain but highly original Scots vernacular-based southern and end elevations and a deep eaves over the studio windows on the north. Its details were drawn from a variety of original vernacular and modern sources, H E Clifford, Smith & Brewer, and particularly James MacLaren at the segment-headed two light windows of the east gable at the centre of the north elevation, but none of these was directly copied: all were re-designed and refined in a highly individual manner. As at Martyrs School there were Japanese elements most obviously at the railings and in the timberwork of the interior. The same idiom was adopted at Ruchill Street Free Church Halls in 1898-99 and at the Daily Record Building in Renfield Lane where the middle floors were of white glazed brick with stylised Tree of Life motifs adapted from Lethaby. At Queen's Cross Church, designed early in 1897, an equally original gothic treatment was adopted, its steeply battered tower based on a medieval example sketched at Merriot in Somerset.

These works were all designed as Honeyman & Keppie's chief assistant, but from 1896 Mackintosh began to build up a small clientele of his own. The most important of these was Miss Catherine Cranston, beginning with the wall decoration of the Buchanan Street Tea Rooms in 1896, the furniture of the Argyle Street Tea Rooms in 1898-99 and the complete interior design of the Ingram Street Tea Rooms in 1900. Concurrently he designed Windyhill at Kilmacolm for the Glasgow provision merchant William Davidson. Like MacLaren and Dunn & Watson's buildings in Glenlyon it had the wholly convincing traditional proportions of solid and void which eluded nearly all other architects at this time, and displayed an even more profound understanding of the true nature of the vernacular.

Some time before 1896 Mackintosh became attached to John Keppie's younger sister Jessie, born 1868 and thus the same age as himself. This attachment was commemorated in a jewel box: there was no formal engagement, but perhaps an understanding that there would be if he was taken into partnership. But by 1897 he had transferred his affections to the older but more imaginative Margaret Macdonald and on 22 August 1900 they were married, a flat at 120 Mains Street having been transformed for their occupation by March 1900. In the meantime McNair had married Margaret's much younger sister Frances in June 1899. This smaller group from The Immortals became known as The Four. Their work was exhibited at the Arts & Crafts Exhibition Society in London in September 1896 and noticed in The Studio in 1897, in Decorative Kunst in 1898 and all four were invited to exhibit at the Vienna Secession in November 1900. In the following month Alexander Koch, the Darmstadt publisher of Academy Architecture, announced the Haus eine Kunstfreundes competition. The Mackintoshes' submission could not be considered as the required interior perspectives had not been provided, but Koch published their completed designs along with Baillie Scott's and Leopold Bauer's. This consolidated their European reputation which had begun with Hermann Muthesius's interest in Mackintosh’s work from 1897, and brought a steady stream of distinguished Austrian and German visitors to Glasgow. Muthesius published the Glasgow Herald building in Die englische Baukunst der Gegenwart in 1900, and was to bring Mackintosh still greater international fame with the publication of Das englische Haus in 1904-05. On 1 January 1901 John Honeyman, by then almost blind, retired at the age of seventy. He allowed Mackintosh to buy out his partnership on more generous terms than he could afford, the practice then becoming Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh. The partnership was retrospective, drawn up by Keppie as late as 10 October 1901, and specified a period of ten years. For the first three years from 1901 to 1903, Honeyman was to receive half the practice's profits. From the remaining half Keppie was to be paid two thirds and Mackintosh one third. For the next two years, 1904 and 1905, Keppie was to receive three-fifths of the profits and Mackintosh two-fifths. Thus Mackintosh did not have to put up any capital but the equal division of the profits from 1906 was to lead to problems later as Keppie's clientele was much larger, and was to remain so. Although his sister's disappointment had damaged their hitherto close relationship, Keppie was initially content with this arrangement and treated Mackintosh generously in the division of the profits for the next decade. But although the completion of Glasgow School of Art and the commission for Scotland Street School were allocated to Mackintosh, the partnership was to seriously limit Mackintosh's opportunities for creative design: as senior assistant he could design whatever commissions came in, but from 1901 Keppie kept his own clients to himself and returned to the drawing board. Initially the partnership went well for Mackintosh with work at Kingsborough Gardens for Newbery's aunt, an exhibition of Mackintosh's work at Turin in 1902, the Hill House for the publisher Walter Blackie in 1902-04, the Willow Tea Room in 1903 and extensive work at the Hous'Hill in 1904-05, both for Miss Cranston, and a number of commissions for interior work and furniture in Austria and Germany. In the 1960s Alex Smellie recalled that Mackintosh had raised the possibility of spending part of each year in Vienna to deal with continental business, an arrangement made practicable by Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh’s fluent German. Keppie declined to agree, mainly because of the steady stream of work for Miss Cranston which would have been difficult to deal with in his absence.

The ending of the payments to Honeyman and the general increase in the Mackintoshes' prosperity enabled Mackintosh to buy 6 Florentine Terrace, Ann Street, Hillhead for £925 on 30 March 1906. The interior was remodelled on similar lines to the Mains Street flat at a cost of a further £900 with the aid of a substantial loan from Keppie. In December of that same year Mackintosh was admitted FRIBA, his proposers being Keppie, Thomas Lennox Watson and John James Burnet. In May 1908 the Mackintoshes took what was probably their first foreign holiday unconnected with business at Cintra in Portugal.

This holiday represented a break during the most important work of Mackintosh's career, the library wing of Glasgow School of Art. On 1 February 1907 Keppie and Mackintosh were instructed to redesign their scheme for the unbuilt western section. It was completed in December 1909, but not without serious differences in February 1908 with the building committee - which included Burnet, Forrest Salmon and David Barclay - over the design of the library and the aggrandisement of the western basement entrance. This followed an earlier and much more public and damaging dispute with Glasgow School Board in October-November 1905 over tile work, the size of the window panes and ultimately an overspend at Scotland Street School. The commission for Auchinibert, where Mackintosh put his English sketches to good use in an accomplished neo-Tudor design ended in differences with his clients Mr and Mrs Francis Shand, who called in Alexander Hislop to complete the interior.

Although the sheer merit of the west wing of Glasgow School of Art and the Oak Room addition to Miss Cranston's Ingram Street tea room in 1907 were not denied, these events undermined Keppie's confidence in Mackintosh as a partner at a time when their ten-year partnership agreement was drawing to a close. It was not terminated on 1 January 1910 as it could have been, but appears to have been continued on a provisional year to yeat basis. In the event the Finance Act of 1909 which introduced the increment tax on new development brought about a sharp decline in the partnership’s income. As in other practices at this time the volume of work halved in 1910, and halved again in 1911. Mackintosh's only significant new commissions were the Chinese Room of 1911 and the Cloister Room of 1913 both at Ingram Street, a ladies' hairdressing salon at 80 Union Street also of 1912, and additions to Auchenbothie Mains and Mossyde at Kilmacolm. Although in the Cloister Room Mackintosh had finally adopted a Viennese inspired idiom which anticipated art deco and might well have proved fashionable, the problems in the practice came to a head with the Jordanhill Training College limited competition of 1913: large public commissions were now critical to the practice as privately commissioned work had dried up. The preparation of the submission fell to Mackintosh, but when the deadline drew near it became apparent that he had designs only for the College itself and that these were on tracing paper which had gone crinkly with watercolour washes. At the last minute Andrew Graham Henderson, a New Zealander who had been a rising star in the office since Mackintosh engaged him in 1904, prepared a classical design for the demonstration school. It was the only element of their submission to be successful when the results were announced in July 1913.

One month earlier, sometime in June, the partnership of Keppie and Mackintosh was dissolved. The catalyst was a threat from Graham Henderson that he would leave if Mackintosh remained a partner. Keppie was not the sort of man who would respond to threats of that kind, but by that date the partnership had been under review for more than a year. In 1912, tow years after the partnership agreement had expired, Keppie had made a detailed financial analysis of partnership income from 1901 to 1911 which showed that Mackintosh had introduced £4,934 worth of business to the practice and Keppie £16,303 and that Mackintosh's share of the profits had been £5,467, £533 more than the business introduced. The further continuation of the 1901 partnership agreement was thus unsustainable. Mackintosh had to leave to set up practice on his own, but no business came his way. Allof these problems affected his health from at least 1911 if not earlier. In July 1914 Margaret induced him to recuperate at Walberswick in Suffolk: Florentine Terrace was then let to a tenant. It was eventually sold to the Davidsons in 1920 after a reminder from Keppie that the interest would shortly be due but would be waived if he sold it before the settlement date.

Mackintosh recovered at Walberswick, where Jessie Newbery found them a studio. Patrick Geddes provided him with some temporary work and he made streetblock designs for Geddes's town planning schemes in India. Nothing came of these and in May 1915 the military authorities confiscated his German and Austrian papers. These were duly read and returned after five weeks but the Mackintoshes were ordered to leave the Walberswick area. By August 1915 they had found studios in Glebe Place in Chelsea where they became friends of J D Ferguson and his wife Margaret Morris, James Pryde, Randolph Schwabe and the photographer E O Hoppe. From there the Mackintoshes produced watercolours and adventurous textile designs commissioned by William Foxton which for a time at least seem to have sold well. Mackintosh also designed for Wenman Basset-Lowke the reconstruction of 78 Derngate, Northampton in which the style of the Cloister Room was most successfully exploited, the work being supervised by W J Anderson's brother Alexander Ellis Anderson.

By early 1919 the Mackintoshes were in some financial difficulty and had to call on the Davidsons for help. Schemes for studios at Glebe Place for the sculptor Francis Derwent Wood and Harold Squire came to very little and a proposed theatre for Margaret Morris did not get off the drawing board at all. In January 1924 the Mackintoshes settled first in Amelie-les-Bains, moving to Ille-sur-Têt in the Pyrenees in February. By December they had settled at the Hotel du Commerce at Port Vendres from which Mackintosh produced watercolours of the local landscape which were amongst his finest works. But in May 1927 Margaret had to return to London with medical problems, and soon thereafter Mackintosh was found to have cancer of the tongue and throat. He returned to London in the autumn for radium treatment which eventually left him unable to speak. After short periods in rooms in Hampstead and in a friend's house in Porchester Square, Mackintosh died in a London nursing home on 10 December 1928. He was cremated the next day at Golders Green.

Margaret Mackintosh survived him: there were no children of the marriage. She kept on the Chelsea studio but spent most of her time in France. After brief periods in Falmouth and Harrogate she returned to Chelsea in December 1932 and died in a London nursing home on 7 January 1933.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architect:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 1670, Parson Street, Glasgow, ScotlandPrivate7 June 1868c. 1874tenement
Item 2 of 162, Firpark Terrace, Glasgow, ScotlandPrivatec. 1874  
Item 3 of 16107, St Vincent Street, Glasgow, ScotlandBusiness18841889apprenticed to John Hutchison
Item 4 of 16140, Bath Street, Glasgow, ScotlandBusiness1889 with Honeyman & Keppie
Item 5 of 162, Regent Park Square, Glasgow, ScotlandPrivate1892c. 1893 
Item 6 of 1682, Langside Avenue, Glasgow, ScotlandPrivatec. 1893c. 1895 
Item 7 of 1627, Regent Park Square, Glasgow, ScotlandPrivatec. 1895  
Item 8 of 16120, Mains Street (now Blythswood Street), Glasgow, ScotlandPrivatec. 18991906 
Item 9 of 166, Florentine Terrace (later called 78 Southpark Ave), Hillhead, Glasgow, ScotlandPrivate30 March 1906 Formerly Ann Street., later changed to 78 Southpark Avenue
Item 10 of 16Chelsea, London, EnglandPrivate1915  
Item 11 of 162 Hans Studios, 43A, Glebe Place, Chelsea, London, EnglandBusiness1916 *  
Item 12 of 16Amelie-les-bains, France(?)PrivateJanuary 19241927 
Item 13 of 16Ille-sur-Tet, FrancePrivateFebruary 1924December 1924 
Item 14 of 16Port Vendres, FrancePrivateJanuary 1925September 1927 
Item 15 of 16Porchester Square, Paddington, London, EnglandPrivate192810 December 1928 
Item 16 of 16Willow Road, Hampstead, London, EnglandPrivateEarly 19281928 

* earliest date known from documented sources.


Employment and Training

Employers

The following individuals or organisations employed or trained this architect (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 4John HutchisonAugust 18831888Apprentice 
Item 2 of 4Honeyman & KeppieLate 1888 or early 1889Before 1896Draughtsman 
Item 3 of 4Honeyman & KeppieBefore 18961 January 1901Senior Assistant 
Item 4 of 4Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh1 January 1901June 1913Partner 

RIBA

RIBA Proposers

The following individuals proposed this architect for RIBA membership (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate proposedNotes
Item 1 of 3(Sir) John James Burnet3 December 1906for Fellowship
Item 2 of 3John Keppie3 December 1906for Fellowship
Item 3 of 3Thomas Lennox Watson3 December 1906for Fellowship

RIBA Proposals

This architect proposed the following individuals for RIBA membership (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate proposedNotes
Item 1 of 1Andrew Graham Henderson3 January 1910for Associateship

Buildings and Designs

This architect was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 1961888Design for a Mountain Chapel    National Competition design
Item 2 of 1961888Design for a Town House in a Terrace   Scotlandstudent design awarded prize by Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts
Item 3 of 1961888Glasgow Necropolis, Gravestone for Chief Constable Alexander McCallDennistoun GlasgowScotland 
Item 4 of 1961889Design for a Presbyterian Church    Competition design
Item 5 of 196c. 1889R Wylie Hill's warehouse  GlasgowScotlandDrawings for decorative sculpture and probably interior work - as apprentice with Hutchison
Item 6 of 1961890Design for a Public Hall   ScotlandWon competition
Item 7 of 1961890Design for a Science and Art Museum    Design for National Competition
Item 8 of 1961890RedclyffeSpringburn GlasgowScotlandDesigned on his own for his uncle (but while assistant to Honeyman & Keppie)
Item 9 of 1961890Workmen's Dwellings  GlasgowScotlandCompetition designs
Item 10 of 1961891(?)Canal Boatmen's InstitutePort Dundas GlasgowScotlandMackintosh was working for Honeyman & Keppie at the time, and was involved in this project for at least the clock face (not carried out)
Item 11 of 1961891Design for a Chapter House    Design entered for the RIBA Soane Medallion Competition - unsuccessful
Item 12 of 1961891Tenement Buildings competition  GlasgowScotlandCompetition design - as assistant with Honeyman and Keppie
Item 13 of 1961892Design for a Railway Terminus    Competition design submitted - unsuccessful
Item 14 of 1961892Manchester Technical Schools  ManchesterEnglandCompetition design submitted (Mackintosh as assistant) - unplaced
Item 15 of 196c. 1892CraigiehallBellahouston GlasgowScotlandInterior additions. Mackintosh was assistant and his hand seems evident in the drawings.
Item 16 of 1961893Conservative ClubHelensburgh DunbartonshireScotlandAs draughtsman to Honeyman & Keppie
Item 17 of 1961893Glasgow Art Club  GlasgowScotlandNew saloon and other alterations - as draughtsman to Honeyman & Keppie
Item 18 of 1961893(?)Glasgow Herald Building  GlasgowScotlandMitchell Street new building and internal remodelling
Item 19 of 1961894Design for a Library in a Glasgow House  GlasgowScotland 
Item 20 of 1961894Medical School for WomenKelvinside GlasgowScotland 
Item 21 of 1961894Royal Insurance Company Building  GlasgowScotlandMackintosh was working with Honeyman & Keppie and appears to have contributed to their unsuccessful competition entry
Item 22 of 1961895Lennox Castle InnLennoxtown StirlingshireScotlandAs senior assistant with Honyeman & Keppie (extent of his role on this project uncertain, but drawings are his; sign relates to his drawing of Rising Sun, Wareham)
Item 23 of 1961895Martyrs Public School  GlasgowScotlandAs senior assistant (role on this project uncertain)
Item 24 of 1961895Skelmorlie Parish ChurchSkelmorlie AyrshireScotlandLamp beside door
Item 25 of 1961895St Paul's Church mission hall  GlasgowScotlandAs senior assistant for Honeyman & Keppie - it is unclear whether he worked on this project or not
Item 26 of 1961896Glasgow School of Art  GlasgowScotlandWon in competition and first phase completed
Item 27 of 1961896Miss Cranston's Tea Rooms, Buchanan Street  GlasgowScotlandInterior decorations - mural stencils
Item 28 of 1961896Pettigrew & Stephens Department Store  GlasgowScotlandMajor reconstruction of existing warehouse
Item 29 of 1961896Queen's Cross Church  GlasgowScotland 
Item 30 of 1961897CraigiehallBellahouston GlasgowScotlandInterior of music room
Item 31 of 1961898233 St Vincent Street  GlasgowScotlandAlterations - responsible for design)
Item 32 of 1961898Dining Room Interior for Hugo Bruckmann  MunichGermany 
Item 33 of 1961898Glasgow International Exhibition of 1901Kelvingrove GlasgowScotlandCompetition design - unplaced
Item 34 of 1961898Kilmacolm Cemetery, Gravestone for James ReidKilmacolm/Kilmalcolm RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 35 of 1961898Miss Cranston's Tea Rooms, Argyle Street  GlasgowScotlandFurniture
Item 36 of 1961898National Bank of Scotland  GlasgowScotlandUnsuccessful competition design
Item 37 of 1961898RedlandsBridge of Weir RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 38 of 1961898Ruchill Street Free Church Mission Halls  GlasgowScotland 
Item 39 of 1961898Westdel and RoystonDowanhill GlasgowScotlandInterior of a bedroom and bathroom for Westdel
Item 40 of 1961899120 Mains Street, interiors  GlasgowScotlandRedesigned interiors of his new home in collaboration with his wife Margaret Macdonald
Item 41 of 1961899Dunglass CastleBowling (near) DunbartonshireScotlandInteriors (drawing room and dining room)
Item 42 of 1961899Gourock Parish ChurchGourock RenfrewshireScotlandExtension/pulpit and choir stalls
Item 43 of 1961899WindyhillKilmacolm/Kilmalcolm RenfrewshireScotlandDesigned on his own (but while assistant at Honeyman & Keppie))
Item 44 of 1961900Dysart Free ChurchDysart FifeScotlandDecorations
Item 45 of 1961900House for an Art Lover  GlasgowScotlandCompetition designs in collaboration with his wife, Margaret Macdonald - failed to provide complete set of drawings and so could not be considered for prize
Item 46 of 196November 1900Eighth Exhibition of the Vienna Secession, Room Setting  ViennaAustriaIn collaboration with his wife Margaret Macdonald, and friends the McNairs
Item 47 of 196c. 1900(?)Design for a Country Mansion    Designs
Item 48 of 1961900 or 1904Miss Cranston's Tea Rooms, Ingram StreetMerchant City GlasgowScotlandOriginal scheme for ladies' lunch room, billiard room, smoking room and rear tea room - in collaboration with his wife, Margaret Macdonald
Item 49 of 196190114 (now 34) Kingsborough Gardens  GlasgowScotlandInteriors of hall and drawing room
Item 50 of 196190129 Hamilton Drive  GlasgowScotlandAlterations and additions
Item 51 of 19619013 Lilybank Terrace  GlasgowScotlandFitted furniture for R Wylie Hill
Item 52 of 1961901Auchenbothie house, stables, gate lodge, cottage etcKilmacolm/Kilmalcolm RenfrewshireScotlandProbably designed gate lodge while draughtsman to Honeyman & Keppie
Item 53 of 1961901Glasgow International Exhibition of 1901, exhibition stand for Francis SmithKelvingrove Park GlasgowScotland 
Item 54 of 1961901Glasgow International Exhibition of 1901, exhibition stand for Glasgow School of Art  GlasgowScotland 
Item 55 of 1961901Glasgow International Exhibition of 1901, exhibition stand for Pettigrew & StephensKelvingrove Park GlasgowScotland 
Item 56 of 1961901Glasgow International Exhibition of 1901, exhibition stand for Rae BrothersKelvingrove Park GlasgowScotland 
Item 57 of 1961901Liverpool Anglican Cathedral, second competition, first stage  LiverpoolEnglandSeveral schemes submitted - one scheme highly commended
Item 58 of 1961901The Mary AcreBrechin AngusScotland 
Item 59 of 196c. 1901An Artist's House in the Country   ScotlandSpeculative design
Item 60 of 196c. 1901An Artist's House in the Town   ScotlandSpeculative design
Item 61 of 196c. 1901Design for a Golf Clubhouse    designs
Item 62 of 1961902202 Bath Street  GlasgowScotlandExtension
Item 63 of 1961902Architecture & Artistic Craft of the New Style Exhibition, Moscow, room setting  MoscowRussiaRoom setting, in collaboration with his wife, Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh
Item 64 of 1961902Cameron Parish ChurchCameron FifeScotlandInterior alterations
Item 65 of 1961902Carl-Ludwigstrasse 45Wahring ViennaAustriaFurnished music room. His wife Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh designed the gesso panels, which were installed in 1907-8
Item 66 of 1961902EasterhillBridge of Weir RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 67 of 1961902EdgehillKelvinside GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 68 of 1961902International Exhibition of Modern Decorative Art, Turin, Rose Boudoir  TurinItalyDesigned in collaboration with his wife, Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh
Item 69 of 1961902Mavor & Coulson Ltd Engineering WorksBridgeton GlasgowScotlandNew Pattern House added to buildings at 47 Broad Street
Item 70 of 1961902Saracen Tool Works, Gallowgate, Great Dovehill  GlasgowScotlandFoundry
Item 71 of 1961902The Hill HouseHelensburgh DunbartonshireScotland 
Item 72 of 1961903211 Sauchiehall Street  GlasgowScotland 
Item 73 of 1961903Daly's premises  GlasgowScotlandAlterations to numbers 213-215 for Miss Jessie Henderson
Item 74 of 1961903Dresdener Werkstätte für Handwerkskunst Exhibition, bedroom interior  DresdenGermany 
Item 75 of 1961903Scotland Street School  GlasgowScotland 
Item 76 of 1961903Strath***, 102 Bath Street  GlasgowScotland 
Item 77 of 1961903The Willow Tea Rooms  GlasgowScotlandRecast building to form tea rooms, including redesigning façade and creating all interiors and furnishings
Item 78 of 1961903UF Church? Park  Scotland 
Item 79 of 1961904ArddarrochFinnart DunbartonshireScotlandNew porch
Item 80 of 1961904Belhaven Mission  GlasgowScotlandAlterations?
Item 81 of 1961904Bridge of Allan Chapel of EaseBridge of Allan StirlingshireScotlandFurnishings - oak screen, choir stalls, communion table and pulpit
Item 82 of 1961904Eglinton Foundry  GlasgowScotlandNew foundry shop
Item 83 of 1961904Hous'hillNitshill GlasgowScotlandRedecoration of interiors.
Item 84 of 1961904IvybankWemyss Bay RenfrewshireScotlandAdditions?
Item 85 of 1961904LinburnShandon DunbartonshireScotlandAlterations
Item 86 of 1961904Loch Rannoch, memorial seatLoch Rannoch PerthshireScotland 
Item 87 of 1961904Paisley Library and MuseumPaisley RenfrewshireScotlandExtension
Item 88 of 1961904Pettigrew & Stephens Department Store  GlasgowScotlandAlterations and additions
Item 89 of 1961904Shop and House for P BroughComrie PerthshireScotland 
Item 90 of 1961904Shop for Henry and Carruthers  GlasgowScotland 
Item 91 of 196190523 Huntly Gardens  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 92 of 1961905Abbey Close UP ChurchPaisley RenfrewshireScotlandPulpit, organ case, font, light fittings and decoration
Item 93 of 1961905AuchinibertKillearn StirlingshireScotland 
Item 94 of 1961905Dining-Room Interior for exhibition in showrooms of A S Ball  BerlinGermany 
Item 95 of 1961905Glasgow Herald Building  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 96 of 1961905Macduff Cemetery, Headstone to Rev Alexander Orrock JohnstonEast Wemyss FifeScotland 
Item 97 of 1961905Prospecthill House, morning room chimneypiecePaisley RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 98 of 1961905Wellesley Tea Rooms  GlasgowScotlandonly plan is by Mackintosh
Item 99 of 1961905Wemyss Castle, gravestone for the Rev Alexander Orrock JohnstonEast Wemyss FifeScotland 
Item 100 of 1961905 or 1906Miss Cranston's Tea Rooms, Argyle Street  GlasgowScotlandInterior of the Dutch Kitchen
Item 101 of 19619064 Woodside Place  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 102 of 19619066 Florentine Terrace  GlasgowScotlandAlterations and interior decorations in collaboration with his wife Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh, for use as their own home
Item 103 of 19619067 Belford Park  EdinburghScotlandAlterations
Item 104 of 19619069 Grosvenor Terrace  GlasgowScotlandProposed alterations - unexecuted
Item 105 of 1961906Balgray Cottage, CloakKilmacolm/Kilmalcolm RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 106 of 1961906Exhibition Stand for Wilkinson Heywood and Clark Ltd   Scotland 
Item 107 of 1961906Glasgow School of Art  GlasgowScotlandInterior of Board Room
Item 108 of 1961906House, Bridge of WeirBridge of Weir RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 109 of 1961906Lodge at Bridge of AllanBridge of Allan StirlingshireScotland 
Item 110 of 1961906St Philip's Free Church, JoppaPortobello EdinburghScotlandRedecoration
Item 111 of 1961906The Guild of Arts     
Item 112 of 1961906The Moss, DrumgoyneKillearn StirlingshireScotlandThree-storey extension with mansard roof (since demolished)
Item 113 of 1961906The Willow Tea Rooms  GlasgowScotlandFurther work
Item 114 of 1961907104 West Regent Street  GlasgowScotlandUnspecified work
Item 115 of 196190711 Hamilton Drive  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 116 of 196190711 Princes GardensDowanhill GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 117 of 19619079 _____ Gate for George Rome   Scotland 
Item 118 of 1961907Auchenbothie house, stables, gate lodge, cottage etcKilmacolm/Kilmalcolm RenfrewshireScotlandCottage (Cloak Ploughman's Cottage?)
Item 119 of 1961907Glasgow School of Art  GlasgowScotlandSecond phase - western section
Item 120 of 1961907Miss Cranston's Tea Rooms, Ingram StreetMerchant City GlasgowScotlandInterior of Oak Room
Item 121 of 1961907Robinsfield, BardowieBaldernock (near) StirlingshireScotlandComplete remodelling, incorporating original tower house - in collaboration with the client, Robert Macaulay Stevenson, who had a hand in the design
Item 122 of 1961907Rothesay High ChurchRothesayButeButeScotlandRestoration
Item 123 of 1961907Theatre Royal  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 124 of 1961907Western Baths  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 125 of 1961907WilmarSkelmorlie AyrshireScotland 
Item 126 of 1961908CraigiehallBellahouston GlasgowScotlandAdditions
Item 127 of 1961908Hous'hillNitshill GlasgowScotlandCard room interior and addition on south side of house
Item 128 of 1961908Lady Artists' Club, Blythswood Square  GlasgowScotlandNew entrance and interiors
Item 129 of 1961908Lilybank HouseHillhead GlasgowScotlandFurther work
Item 130 of 1961908Mossyde, CloakKilmacolm/Kilmalcolm RenfrewshireScotlandBalgray Cottage extended to form Mossyde
Item 131 of 1961908The Kid (?) HouseMilliken Park Renfrewshire?Scotland 
Item 132 of 19619093 Woodside CrescentWoodside GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 133 of 19619093 Woodside Place  GlasgowScotlandInterior work
Item 134 of 1961909Dineiddwg, MugdockMilngavie DunbartonshireScotlandFurther work
Item 135 of 1961909Glasgow Herald Exhibition Stand  GlasgowScotland 
Item 136 of 1961909Kelvinside Free ChurchKelvinside GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 137 of 1961909Miss Cranston's Tea Rooms, Ingram StreetMerchant City GlasgowScotlandInterior of Oval Room and ladies' rest room
Item 138 of 196191044 West George Street  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 139 of 1961910House in Woodside Place  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 140 of 1961910Pettigrew & Stephens Department Store  GlasgowScotlandTearoom and alterations in basement
Item 141 of 1961910Premises, Cromwell Street and Great Western Road  GlasgowScotlandReconstruction of stables as workshops
Item 142 of 1961910Queen’s University  BelfastNorthern IrelandUnplaced entry in competition
Item 143 of 1961911Auchenbothie MainsKilmacolm/Kilmalcolm RenfrewshireScotlandAlterations and additions
Item 144 of 1961911Cardross Drill Hall, GeilstonCardross DunbartonshireScotlandAdditions
Item 145 of 1961911Carntyne Dyewood MillsCarntyne GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 146 of 1961911Daily Record Building  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 147 of 1961911Dumbarton Cemetery, Monument for William Talwin MorrisDumbarton DunbartonshireScotland 
Item 148 of 1961911Edston Gall Gardens   Scotland 
Item 149 of 1961911Glasgow School of Art  GlasgowScotlandFurther work
Item 150 of 1961911Manchester Library and Art Gallery Competition  ManchesterEnglandCompetition design - premiated (100 guineas) but did not win
Item 151 of 1961911Memorial stone for Robert M MannBusby LanarkshireScotland 
Item 152 of 1961911Miss Cranston's Tea Rooms, Ingram StreetMerchant City GlasgowScotlandBlue room added; interior of Chinese Room
Item 153 of 1961911Miss Cranston's Tea Rooms, Ingram StreetMerchant City GlasgowScotlandInterior of Cloister Room
Item 154 of 1961911New West ChurchGreenock RenfrewshireScotlandInterior refurbished and new chancel
Item 155 of 1961911Premises for HC Ltd   ScotlandMinor alterations
Item 156 of 1961911Premises for T & R Annan & Sons, Sauchiehall Street  GlasgowScotland 
Item 157 of 1961911Scottish Exhibition of National History, Art and Industry, 1911, White Cockade Tea RoomKelvingrove GlasgowScotland 
Item 158 of 196191278-82 Union Street  GlasgowScotlandInterior of ladies' hairdressing salon for number 80 - now demolished
Item 159 of 1961912Barnard Castle, Bandstand Pavilion, Bowes Museum  County DurhamEnglandDesign exhibited
Item 160 of 1961912Glasgow Art Club  GlasgowScotlandAlterations
Item 161 of 1961912Mavor & Coulson Ltd Engineering WorksBridgeton GlasgowScotlandFurther work
Item 162 of 1961912PinehurstBearsden GlasgowScotland 
Item 163 of 1961912Pitlochry HydroPitlochry PerthshireScotlandAlterations
Item 164 of 1961912Premises for Scott, Lauder & Thompson  GlasgowScotland 
Item 165 of 1961912Tenement, Rutherglen Road  GlasgowScotland 
Item 166 of 1961912Tenement, Thistle Street and Hospital Street  GlasgowScotland 
Item 167 of 1961912The Hill HouseHelensburgh DunbartonshireScotlandFurther work
Item 168 of 1961913100 Princes StreetHelensburgh DunbartonshireScotlandAlterations (?)
Item 169 of 1961913Belhaven UP ChurchDowanhill GlasgowScotlandMemorial
Item 170 of 1961913Glasgow Herald Building  GlasgowScotlandFurther alterations
Item 171 of 1961913Jordanhill Teacher Training CollegeJordanhill GlasgowScotlandCompetition design
Item 172 of 1961913Monument for Alex RobertsonDunoon ArgyllScotland 
Item 173 of 1961913Mossyde, CloakKilmacolm/Kilmalcolm RenfrewshireScotlandAdditions
Item 174 of 1961913Pettigrew & Stephens Department Store  GlasgowScotlandFurther work
Item 175 of 1961914Premises for HJ    Alterations? New build?
Item 176 of 196c. 1915Design for a memorial fountain in a public place    unexecuted designs
Item 177 of 196c. 1915Design for a shop- and office-block in an arcaded street  Lucknow?India 
Item 178 of 196c. 1915Design for a war memorial in a public place    unexecuted designs - may be 1918 in date
Item 179 of 196c. 1915Design for a warehouse-block in an arcaded street  Lucknow?Indiaunexecuted designs
Item 180 of 196c. 1915Designs for lamp standards    unexecuted designs
Item 181 of 196191678 DerngateNorthampton NorthamptonshireEnglandRemodelling
Item 182 of 1961916The Willow Tea Rooms  GlasgowScotlandInterior of the Dug-Out
Item 183 of 1961917FairlawnBath SomersetEnglandInterior of bedroom
Item 184 of 1961918Candida CottageRoade NorthamptonshireEnglandAlterations, additions and interior of dining room
Item 185 of 19619195 The DriveNorthampton NorthamptonshireEnglandInterior of dining room
Item 186 of 196191978 DerngateNorthampton NorthamptonshireEnglandInterior of guest bedroom
Item 187 of 1961919Little HedgecourtEast Grinstead (near) West SussexEnglandAlterations and additions
Item 188 of 196192048 Glebe PlaceChelsea LondonEnglandunexecuted design for studio-house
Item 189 of 1961920Leigh Farm CottagesAnsty West SussexEnglandAlterations and additions
Item 190 of 1961920Studio-house, 49 Glebe PlaceChelsea LondonEngland 
Item 191 of 1961920Studios and Studio-Flats, Upper Cheyne RowChelsea LondonEnglandunexecuted designs
Item 192 of 1961920Studios, 50 Glebe PlaceChelsea LondonEngland 
Item 193 of 1961920The Mystery HouseChelsea LondonEnglandproposed alterations - unexecuted
Item 194 of 1961920Theatre for Margaret MorrisChelsea LondonEnglanddesigns
Item 195 of 196After 1920(?)48 Glebe PlaceChelsea LondonEnglandunexecuted design for block of studios and possibly studio-flats (between late 1920 and 1922)
Item 196 of 196192178 DerngateNorthampton NorthamptonshireEnglandRedecoration of hall

References

Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architect:
 Author(s)DateTitlePartPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 31Barnes, H Jefferson1979Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Glasgow School of art: Volume 2: Furniture in the School Collection2nd edition  
Item 2 of 31Barnes, H Jefferson1979Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Glasgow School of art: Volume 3: ironwork and metal work in the school Collection2nd edition  
Item 3 of 31Barnes, H Jefferson1988Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Glasgow School of art: Volume 1 architecture exteriors and interiors3rd edition  
Item 4 of 31Bedford, Jane and Davies, Ivor1973Remembering Charles Rennie Mackintosh: a recorded interview with Mary Newbery Sturrock From Connoisseur, volume 183 
Item 5 of 31Billcliffe, Roger1979Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Complete Furniture, Furniture Drawings & Interior Designs Guildford & London: Lutterworth Press 
Item 6 of 31Bird, Elizabeth1968Walter Blackie: memories of Charles Rennie Mackintosh Scottish Art Review, volume 11, pp6-11 
Item 7 of 31Bird, Elizabeth1975Ghosts and gaspipes: pulic reaction to the early work of the Four Scottish Art Review, volume 14, pp13-14 
Item 8 of 31Brett, David1990C R Mackintosh: The Poetics of Workmanship London: Reaktion Books Ltd 
Item 9 of 31Crawford, Alan1995Charles Rennie Mackintosh London: Thames and Hudson 
Item 10 of 31Ferguson, H C S Glasgow School of Art: the history   
Item 11 of 31Grogan, Elaine2002Beginnings: Charles Rennie Mackintosh's early sketches   
Item 12 of 31Helland, Janice1994The critics and the Arts and Crafts: the instance of Margaret Macdonald and Charles Rennie Mackintosh Art History, volume 17, pp209-227 
Item 13 of 31Howarth, Thomas1977Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Modern MovementSecond EditionLondon: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd 
Item 14 of 31http://www.78derngate.org.uk/content/78-derngate-history-part-3 http://www.78derngate.org.uk/content/78-derngate-history-part-3   
Item 15 of 31Hunterian Art Gallery1990C R Mackintosh Architectural Drawings Glasgow: Hunterian Art Gallery 
Item 16 of 31Kossatz, Host-Herbert1971The Vienna Secession and its early relations with Great Britain Studio International, volume 181 
Item 17 of 31Macaulay, James1993Charles Rennie Mackintosh: Glasgow School of Art London 
Item 18 of 31Macaulay, James1994Charles Rennie Mackintosh: Hill House   
Item 19 of 31Muthesius, Herman1904Das Englische Haus See translation by Denis Sharp and Janet Seligman 1979 
Item 20 of 31Nuttgens, Patrick (ed)1988Mackintosh and his contemporaries in Europe and America   
Item 21 of 31Pevsner, N and Richards, J M (ed.)1973The Anti Rationalists   
Item 22 of 31Poesner, Julius1980Hermann Muthesius and English Domestic Architecture Architectural Association Quarterly, Volume 12, pp54-61 
Item 23 of 31Robertson (Reekie), Pamela Mackintosh House No date but after 1997 
Item 24 of 31Robertson (Reekie), Pamela (ed.)1999Charles Rennie Mackintosh, architectural sketches   
Item 25 of 31Robertson (Reekie), Pamela (ed.)2001The Chronycle: the letters of Charles Rennie Mackintosh to Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh 1927   
Item 26 of 31Robertson, Pamela (ed)1990Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Architectural Papers Wendelburg: White Cockade Publishing 
Item 27 of 31Robertson, Pamela and Johnston, J Stewart1996Charles Rennie Mackintoshexhibition catalogueGlasgow: Glasgow Museums 
Item 28 of 31Service, Alastair1975Edwardian Architecture and its Origins   
Item 29 of 31Stark, David2004Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Co., 1854 to 2004 Glasgow: Stenlake Publishing Ltd 
Item 30 of 31Walker, Frank Arneil1986South Clyde Estuary: An Illustrated Architectural Guide to Inverclyde and Renfrew  p31, p84, p90, p91, p140
Item 31 of 31Young, Andrew McLaren1968Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928): Architecture, Design and Painting Catalogue of Edinburgh Festival Society/Scottish Arts Council exhib at Royal Scottish Museum, Edinb 

Periodical References

The following periodicals contain references to this architect:
 Periodical NameDateEditionPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 4Builder21 August 1953  p300 - exhibition of Mackintosh's work (models, paintings, photographs, furniture, and silver) at Gladstone's Land, Edinburgh, arranged by Dr Thomas Howarth
Item 2 of 4Builder18 December 1953  p951-952 - details of RIBA Mackintosh exhibition, with examination of Mackintosh as 'tragic' figure

p954-955 - 'A Pioneer of the Modern Movement', detailing Thomas Howarth's lecture, and with T S Eliot's views
Item 3 of 4Charles Rennie Mackintosh Soc. Newsletter/Journal*  From 1973
Item 4 of 4RIAS Quarterly1933SpringRoyal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland (RIAS)pp1-14 (appreciation by J Jeffrey Waddell)

Archive References

The following archives hold material relating to this architect:
 SourceArchive NameSource Catalogue No.Notes
Item 1 of 2Professor David M Walker personal archiveProfessor David M Walker, notes and collection of archive material Personal information from Alex Smellie, Walter Blackie's daughters and Mary Newbery Sturrock
Item 2 of 2RIBA Archive, Victoria & Albert MuseumRIBA Nomination Papers F v17 p138, no 1165

Images

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