Basic Biographical Details

Name: Walter Newall
Designation: Architect
Born: 3 April 1780
Died: 25 December 1863
Bio Notes: Walter Newall was born at Doubledyke, New Abbey, Kirkcudbrightshire, on 3 April 1780. He was the son of a farmer.

He began his career as a cabinet-maker. He was admitted to the trade incorporation of Dumfries in December 1807 and, as a cabinet-maker, became a burgess of Dumfries in 1808. He was a partner in Newall Hannah & Reid, a firm of cabinet-makers in Dumfries. His drawings of furniture show that he was a competent draughtsman. However, the cabinet-making business failed about 1814 and as a result he began to practice as an architect. There is no information to suggest what kind of formal training he had or where he served his articles. However, his buildings show that he had a knowledge of contemporary thinking in the Greek Revival and the Picturesque Gothic styles. His papers show him to have made tours of Germany, (France?) and Italy, as well as part of England, notably Oxford, Cambridge and Fonthill.

Newall had a large practice, mainly in Dumfriesshire and Kirkcudbrightshire. He tackled a varied range of work including churches, country houses, villas and farmsteads, many of which were on Buccleuch estates. He was responsible for the development in and around George Street - the New Town of Dumfries - and the conversion of a windmill in Maxweltown into an observatory which became one of the town’s landmarks. Newall’s Greek Revival bungalows are distinctively Scottish and are particularly successful.

J C Loudon thought sufficiently of Newall’s work to give a detailed account of one of the Greek Revival villas, Hannayfield, in his ‘Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture’ (Vol. II p.850/853) and also illustrated eight of Newall’s farmsteads. He states that in the summer of 1831 he went over Hannayfield - now Ladyfield West - with the owner, John Hannah or Hannay, and Walter Newall. As befits a landscape gardener, Loudon commented on the deficiencies of the landscaping (which Mr Hannah had designed) but did not criticise the house.

In 1841 Newall, who never married, was living on the west side of High Street with his unmarried sister, Nicholas [sic]. He had moved to George Street ten years later, still with his sister. At that date he is described as ‘architect and civil engineer’ and he had two employees. About this time Newall abandoned the Greek Revival style in favour of the Tudor/Scots vernacular style favoured by William Burn and others. Kirkmahoe is one of the best examples of Newall’s Gothic style churches. He designed various churchyard monuments, both Gothic and classical, and two examples of the latter are illustrated in Loudon’s Gardener’s Magazine, 1831.

Newall had retired to Craigend, New Abbey, by 1861 where he is described as ‘heritor and farmer, retired architect’. His sister was still in his household as was his 9-year-old nephew from Canada, Walter Copeland. Walter Newall died at Craigend on Christmas Day 1863. He is buried in St Michael’s Churchyard, Dumfries.


Accounts in Dumfries Museum for the following:
Estimate for Benjamin Bell, no date (alterations)
Estimate for Mrs Copeland, no date, but about 1811 (alterations)
House for Archibald MacDougall, probably 1811-12, cost £1310
Alterations for William Monies, no date but about 1812.
William Thomson, for making a 'meal chest', no date but about 1812.
Estimate for Messrs Thomson & Kerr, 1817, alterations.
Estimate for Mrs Williamson, no date, but about 1811.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architect:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 2Dumfries, Dumfriesshire, ScotlandBusiness   
Item 2 of 27, George Street, Dumfries, Dumfriesshire, ScotlandPrivate Before 1854 

Employment and Training

Employees or Pupils

The following individuals were employed or trained by this architect (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 4John Edgar Greganc. 1828(?)Before 1833(?)Apprentice 
Item 2 of 4William Reid Corsonc. 1840(?)Before 1845Apprentice 
Item 3 of 4George Corsonc. 18441849Apprentice 
Item 4 of 4James Barbourc. 1848c. 1854Apprentice 

Buildings and Designs

This architect was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 114 AldermanhillDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandAttirbution - no date
Item 2 of 114 Bank building (or similar), High StreetLockerbie DumfriesshireScotlandAttribution - no date
Item 3 of 114 Blacket HouseEaglesfield, Middlebie DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 4 of 114 Bridge over the River CairnJardington DumfriesshireScotlandDate not known.
Item 5 of 114 Castle DykesDumfries (near) DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 6 of 114 Cavens HouseKirkbean KirkcudbrightshireScotlandProposed additions
Item 7 of 114 Comlongan Estate, farm houses and steadings  DumfriesshireScotlandDate uncertain
Item 8 of 114 Courance House  DumfriesshireScotlandAttribution - addition to earlier house which was retained to serve as rear wing.
Item 9 of 114 Crindau HouseDumfries DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 10 of 114 EarlstonDouglas LanarkshireScotlandAttribution - no date known.
Item 11 of 114 Friars Carse HouseDunscore DumfriesshireScotlandAdditions to old house and offices
Item 12 of 114 Gelston, Douglas of Castle Douglas MausoleumGelston KirkcudbrightshireScotlandDate not given by MacKechnie. Attribution.
Item 13 of 114 Holecleuch Farm  DumfriesshireScotlandDate uncertain
Item 14 of 114 House, 34 High StreetLochmaben DumfriesshireScotlandAttribution
Item 15 of 114 Huntly LodgeMoffat DumfriesshireScotlandAttribution - on the grounds of similarity to nearby Hunter's Croft.
Item 16 of 114 Justenlees, houseAnnan DumfriesshireScotlandNo date known
Item 17 of 114 Kindar LodgeNew Abbey KirkcudbrightshireScotlandAdditions to existing house. Attribution.
Item 18 of 114 Kirkbean CottageKirkbean KirkcudbrightshireScotlandNo location or date
Item 19 of 114 Kirkcolm House  DumfriesshireScotlandNo date
Item 20 of 114 Kirkcowan Parish ChurchKirkcowan WigtownshireScotlandAttribution - date not known
Item 21 of 114 Mains House  DumfriesshireScotlandProposed additions - no date
Item 22 of 114 MunchesDalbeattie KirkcudbrightshireScotlandOriginal house - date unknown
Item 23 of 114 Premises, Castle Street and George StreetDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandAttribution
Item 24 of 114 SchoolsMoffat DumfriesshireScotlandProject sketches - not certain if executed.
Item 25 of 114 Tenement, High StreetDumfries DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 26 of 114 Woodlands, House, lodge and gatepiersDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandNo date known.
Item 27 of 1141811Barjarg Tower  DumfriesshireScotlandRepairs
Item 28 of 1141811River Nith  DumfreisshireScotlandSupervision of river improvements to scheme by Holinsworth.
Item 29 of 114c. 1812HannahfieldDumfries Dumfriesshire  
Item 30 of 1141813DildawnRhonehouse KirkcudbrightshireScotland 
Item 31 of 1141814Borgue Parish ChurchBorgue KirkcudbrightshireScotlandAttribution
Item 32 of 1141817Buittle Parish ChurchBuittle KirkcudbrightshireScotlandOriginal church (Colvin gives 1818-19)
Item 33 of 1141817Dumfries Court HouseDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandRepairs and superintending
Item 34 of 1141817Unidentified Church   ScotlandEstimate
Item 35 of 1141818Lochrutton ChurchLochrutton DumfriesshireScotlandAttribution - unsigned plans in NRA. Building contract refers to Newall as arbiter but probably not his design.
Item 36 of 1141820Brownhall, Powder MagazineDumfries DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 37 of 1141820Premises, 41 Castle StreetDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandNewall 'involved in the building' of this property.
Item 38 of 114c. 1820Broomlands HouseDumfries DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 39 of 114c. 1820Commercial Bank of Scotland, DumfriesDumfries DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 40 of 114c. 1820KilquhanityKirkpatrck Durham KirkcudbrightshireScotland 
Item 41 of 114c. 1820The HolmBalmaclellan KirkcudbrightshireScotlandProposed house - not clear if it was the same building as that demolished by Wolffe.
Item 42 of 1141821Youngfield house and stable blockDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandStables
Item 43 of 1141822Kells Parish ChurchNew Galloway KirkcudbrightshireScotlandResonsible for datestone? - attribution by MacKechnie?
Item 44 of 1141822Kirkmahoe Parish ChurchKirkmahoe DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 45 of 1141823Moat BraeDumfries DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 46 of 1141824Bridge over River Cairn at GribtonGribton DunfriesshireScotlandUnexecuted scheme 'Mr Newall's Plan of a Suspension Bridge over the Cairn at Gribton Ford'. Span 100 feet. Stone pylons in neo-Egyptian style.
Item 47 of 1141824Maxwellton House  DumfriesshireScotlandSubmitted scheme for west range - unexecuted.
Item 48 of 1141824Moffat Assembly Room and BathsMoffat DumfriesshireScotlandBuilt as Baths Hall
Item 49 of 1141824New Abbey RC Church with integral priest's houseNew Abbey KirkcudbrightshireScotland 
Item 50 of 114Before 1824Kerrfield CottageDumfries DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 51 of 114c. 1824Youngfield house and stable blockDumfries DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 52 of 1141825Underwood HouseDryfesdale, near Lockerbie DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 53 of 1141826Anwoth Parish ChurchAnwoth KirkcudbrightshireScotlandOriginal building
Item 54 of 1141826Spottes Hall  KirkcudbrightshireScotlandBroad full-height piend roofed projection added.
Item 55 of 1141827Tenement, High Street and Bank StreetDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandPossibly also responsible for the adjoing tenement 43-49 Bank Street.
Item 56 of 114After 1827Gribton EstateHollywood DumfriesshireScotlandGifford gives 'about 1830'
Item 57 of 114182861 Irish StreetDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandAttribution - bears some similarities to Moat Brae
Item 58 of 1141828Cardoness HouseKirkcudbright KirkcudbrightshireScotland 
Item 59 of 114Before 1828(?)Alton Farm, Drumlanrig Estate  DumfriesshireScotlandDate uncertain but most work for the Duke of Buccleuch dates from before 1828 at which point William Burn took over as the preferred architect by the Duke.
Item 60 of 114c. 1828Inglestone East FarmDurisdeer DumfriesshireScotlandNot clear if Newll worked on Ingleston East or West Farm
Item 61 of 114c. 1828Inglestone West FarmDurisdeer DumfriesshireScotlandNot clear if Newall design East or West Ingleston.
Item 62 of 1141829Castlehill steading  DumfriesshireScotlandSteading - incorporating existing barn
Item 63 of 1141829Coshogle  DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 64 of 1141829Crairiehill Farmhouse and steadingDurisdeer DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 65 of 1141829Sweetbit Farm  DumfriesshireScotlandAttribution by Gifford because of similarity to Alton.
Item 66 of 114c. 1829Gateslack  DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 67 of 1141830GlenlairParton KirkcudbrightshireScotlandDouble pile house with twin gabled flanks, perhaps enlarging existing house. Newall's house relagated to rear wing following additions by Peddie & Kinnear.
Item 68 of 114After 1830Broadholm  DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 69 of 114c. 1830Crairiepark Farmhouse and SteadingDurisdeer DumfriesshireScotlandOriginal building (probably- HS)
Item 70 of 114c. 1830Riddingwood HouseKirkmahoe DumfriesshireScotland'villa residence and farmery'
Item 71 of 114Before 1831St Michael's Kirkyard, two headstones for the Hood FamilyDumfries DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 72 of 114c. 1831Holestane Farmhouse, Steading Dairy and outbuildingsDurisdeer DumfriesshireScotlandDate from HS
Item 73 of 1141832Moat BraeDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandNewall known to have made measurements of the garden boundary.
Item 74 of 1141832Parton Parish ChurchParton KirkcudbrightshireScotland 
Item 75 of 1141832Sidmount CottageMoffat DunfriesshireScotland 
Item 76 of 114c. 1834(?)MurraythwaiteDalton, Cummertrees DumfriesshireScotlandAlterations?
Item 77 of 1141835Glencairn Parish ChurchKirkland DumfriesshireScotlandPlans drawn up - McCandlish's designs preferred.
Item 78 of 1141835Irving Street Congregational ChurchDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandAttribution
Item 79 of 1141835Kirkbean Parish ChurchKirkbean KirkcudbrightshireScotlandTwo upper stages of tower added.
Item 80 of 1141835WindmillDumfries MaxwelltownScotlandConversion of windmill into observatory to coincide with the 1835 visit of Halley's Comet.
Item 81 of 114Before 1835Mount Annan CottageAnnan DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 82 of 1141837Amisfield House  DumfriesshireScotlandFront range - attribution on stylistic grounds. See Riddingwood and Cleughheads.
Item 83 of 1141837(?)Mouswald ManseMouswald DumfriesshireScotlandMacKechnie gives the date as 1830c.
Item 84 of 1141837Tinwald Parish ManseTinwald DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 85 of 114Before 1837Muirhouse (possibly), farmhouse and farmsteadLockerbie DumfreisshireScotland 
Item 86 of 114Before 1837Upper Cluden, farmhouse and steading  DumfriesshireScotlandNo date.
Item 87 of 1141838Corsock parish ChurchCorsock DumfriesshireScotlandMay have been the architect - he provided a design for the pulpit gratis.
Item 88 of 1141838ManseLochmaben DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 89 of 1141839British Linen BankDumfries DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 90 of 1141839Halleaths, double cottage and stables  DumfriesshireScotlandDouble cottage
Item 91 of 1141840Caerlaverock ManseCaerlaverock DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 92 of 1141840Glencairn ManseGlencairn DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 93 of 1141840ManseKirkland DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 94 of 114c. 1840Granton HouseMoffat DumfriesshireScotlandIncorporates previous house. Greek revival country house composed about a central tower in the manner of Smirk's Kinmount and William Burn's Craigielands (1817) (discussed by D Walker (1984)). See also entrance compared to that of Newall's Dumfries Observatory.
Item 95 of 114c. 1840 or c. 1830(?)DallawoodieHolywood DumfriesshireScotlandHouse, gatepiers and lodge.
Item 96 of 1141842Southerness LighthouseSoutherness DumfriesshireScotlandRemodelling of existing navigational pillar.
Item 97 of 1141842Wallace Hall AcademyCloseburn DumfriesshireScotlandAlterations
Item 98 of 1141843Halleaths, double cottage and stables  DumfriesshireScotlandMay be by Newall - sophisticated composition with colonnaded angles and deep eaves.
Item 99 of 1141843Lochmaben Free ChurchLochmaben DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 100 of 114c. 1843Gillesbie HouseBoreland DumfriesshireScotlandGreatly enlarged
Item 101 of 114Before 1844OrchardtonAuchencairn DumfriesshireScotlandNew build? Additions?
Item 102 of 1141845Devorgilla CottageNew Abbey KirkcudbrightshireScotlandSurvey plan of grounds.
Item 103 of 1141845Stroquan HouseDunscore DumfriesshireScotlandAdditions to existing house - attribution
Item 104 of 114Before 1846CleugheadsAnnan DumfriesshireScotlandAttribution - which seems likely as the Dirom family held Mount Annan and Cleugheads.
Item 105 of 1141847Devorgilla CottageNew Abbey KirkcudbrightshireScotlandOutbuildings in the style of Newall - dated 1847.
Item 106 of 1141847River Nith  DumfreisshireScotlandDrawing showing levels and depths, Dumfries to Southerness.
Item 107 of 114Before 1848MavisgroveDumfries (near) DumfriesshireScotlandNo date in Colvin.
Item 108 of 1141849Dumfries and Maxwelltown water supplyDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandDesigns carried out in conjunction with William Gale of Glasgow.
Item 109 of 1141849Parish ChurchKirkpatrick Durham KirkcudbrightshireScotland 
Item 110 of 1141850GlassmountMoffat DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 111 of 114c. 1850(?)GracefieldDumfries DumfriesshireScotlandAttirbution.
Item 112 of 114Early 1800sConheath House  DumfriesshireScotland 
Item 113 of 114Early 1800sHoddom CastleEcclefechan DumfriesshireScotlandGateway and porter's lodge
Item 114 of 114Early 1800sNetherwood HouseDumfries DumnfriesshireScotland 

References

Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architect:
 Author(s)DateTitlePartPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 3Colvin, H M1995A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600-18403rd editionNew Haven and London: Yale University Press 
Item 2 of 3MacKechnie, Aonghus1988Walter Newall, Architect in Dumfries Trans. Dumfres & Galloway Naturual History & Antiquarian Society, 3rd ser, lxiii 
Item 3 of 3Scotlands People Website Wills & Testaments  Kirkcudbright Sheriff Court SC16/41/25 (Will)

Periodical References

The following periodicals contain references to this architect:
 Periodical NameDateEditionPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 1Dumfries and Galloway Standard22 February 1854  Sale of 7 George Street.

Archive References

The following archives hold material relating to this architect:
 SourceArchive NameSource Catalogue No.Notes
Item 1 of 1Dumfries Archive CentreWalter Newall Collection