Basic Biographical Details

Name: Clifford & Lunan
Designation: Architectural practice
Started: 1909
Ended: December 1923
Bio Notes: Henry (Harry) Edward Clifford was born at North Naparama, Trinidad, on 12 September 1852, the second son and fourth child of F Henry Clifford, a sugar planter, and his wife Rebecca Anderson, the daughter of John Anderson, a wool carder with a lint mill between Campbeltown and Machrihanish. In 1859 Clifford's father died of a stroke and his mother, then thirty-five, brought her two sons and two daughters to Glasgow where she made a living as a needlewoman.

In October 1867 Clifford was articled to John Burnet Senior for five years and remained a further five as draughtsman; he may previously have been the office boy, as the recollections of Clifford's son state that he joined the office at the age of thirteen. He left to commence practice on his own account first at 113 West Regent Street and then at 196 St Vincent Street, having won 100 in a newspaper competition for a workman's cottage. In his earliest years of independent practice (1878 to 1880) he studied at Glasgow School of Art where he won the Queen's Prize for a dining room wall and the Haldane Prize both in 1879. By 1884 his practice, hitherto supplemented by teaching at Glasgow School of Art, had begun to pick up and he took rooms at 140 Bath Street, apparently within the office of John Honeyman whose practice was then in decline. This arrangement, which may have been with a view to a partnership, ended in 1885 when he formed a partnership with Burnet's nephew and former assistant William Landless under the style of Landless & Clifford at 227 West George Street, but in the difficult conditions of the mid-1880s Landless (who was said to have a drink problem) abandoned private practice in July 1887 to become architect to Leeds School Board. Thereafter Clifford practised on his own account from several addresses in St Vincent Street, much of the business being around Campbeltown. His home address between 1877 and throughout the 1880s was his mother and sisters' school in Pollokshields, first at 13 (now 167) Nithsdale Road, Pollokshields, and later at 12 Moray Place. In the early 1890s he built himself a weekend house, Redclyffe at Troon, but continued to live with his mother and sisters during the week. In the mid-1890s he appears to have considered moving his practice to England as in 1894 he joined the Society of Architects and had an address at Trismore Lodge, Alexandra Road, Watford. Nothing is known of his English practice at that time. It was probably not extensive.

On 7 December 1904 at the age of 52, Clifford married 29-year-old Alice Gibson, daughter of William Gibson, physician and surgeon at Campbeltown in the Longrow Free Church there, one of the witnesses being the Ayr architect James Kennedy Hunter. Their honeymoon was spent in Cannes. In the earlier years of their marriage the Cliffords continued to live with Clifford's mother and sisters during the week, their only child William Henry Morton Clifford being born at Kirkland, Campbeltown on 30 July 1909, but two years later they built a new house in Elphinstone Road, Whitecraigs, where Clifford had already built several houses. It was named Woodbrook after the Trinidad estate.

Clifford achieved national fame in 1901 by winning the Glasgow Royal Infirmary competition but following a difference of opinion between the directors and their assessor Rowand Anderson, the commission was given to James Miller, Clifford securing appointment to the Royal Victoria Infirmary as consolation prize in 1902. His domestic work achieved a European reputation with the publication of Stoneleigh in Das Englische Haus in 1904-5 and on 11 June 1906 he was elected FRIBA, his proposers being James Miller, John James Burnet, David Barclay and C J MacLean. In 1909 he took into partnership his principal assistant Thomas Melville Lunan, who also had good connections in the golfing world. Born in 1878, Lunan had been articled to James Miller from 1896 to 1901, and had studied at the Glasgow School of Art before moving to Watson & Salmond, a partnership with adjacent offices to Clifford's at 225 St Vincent Street and with whom he shared staff on the basis of need. Lunan was a good architect of the Miller school and the Clifford & Lunan partnership was initially very successful, winning the competition assessed by Burnet for the new City Hall at Perth in the first year of its existence. However, Lunan was seriously affected by his experiences in the Great War and returned demoralised and unable to work, obliging Clifford to buy out his partnership. Lunan then moved to Leeds 'where he married a good wife who restored his morale', enabling him to successfully recommence practice there. Clifford continued thereafter on his own until his retirement on medical advice in December 1923. His practice was absorbed by that of Watson & Salmond.

John Watson II, who knew Clifford well in his later years, described him as tall and good-looking but rather shy and retiring; his son's memoir, however, suggests a more assertive personality. He took no active part in public affairs and his business was founded solely on their professional merit coupled with family, golfing, sailing and cricketing connections. Except for Pollokshields Burgh Hall, which has affinities with the Scots Renaissance of Burnet Son & Campbell, his work tended to be essentially English rather than Scottish in inspiration from c.1890. His churches and houses were consistently in a robust 15th-century and early-16th-century manner, Cathcart Parish Church designed in 1914 differing little in style from his work of twenty years earlier. At the turn of the century his public and commercial buildings were stylistically more adventurous with modern movement characteristics most notably at the very fine Aird and Coghill printing works of 1901 and in the design for the Glasgow Royal Infirmary but by 1909 he had adopted a more conventional but very competent Edwardian Renaissance manner, influenced by his admiration for the work of Richard Norman Shaw.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architectural practice:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 2225, St Vincent Street, Glasgow, ScotlandBusiness1909Before 1920 
Item 2 of 2209, St Vincent Street, Glasgow, ScotlandBusiness1920 *  

* earliest date known from documented sources.

Employment and Training

Employees or Pupils

The following individuals were employed or trained by this architectural practice (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 8Allan J Lawrie1909 Draughtsman 
Item 2 of 8James Maclaren Honeyman1909October 1912Apprentice 
Item 3 of 8Henry Edward Clifford19091923Partner 
Item 4 of 8Thomas Melville Lunan19091923Partner 
Item 5 of 8James Maclaren HoneymanOctober 19121913(?)AssistantSpare-time only
Item 6 of 8Charles Findlater Reid1 June 191330 July 1915Apprentice 
Item 7 of 8Charles Findlater Reid1 November 19191923Apprentice 
Item 8 of 8James Bunyan19231923ApprenticeUnder Henry Edward Clifford

Buildings and Designs

This architectural practice was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 291907 or 1908Perth Town HallPerth PerthshireScotlandWon competition and secured job
Item 2 of 291908Shennanton HouseKirkcowan WigtownshireScotland 
Item 3 of 291909Hyndland Public School  GlasgowScotlandWon competition to secure job
Item 4 of 291910Cairn o'Mount  GlasgowScotland 
Item 5 of 291910Glasgow School Board Offices  GlasgowScotland 
Item 6 of 291910(?)Usher Hall  EdinburghScotlandSecond premiated competition design - unclear whether by Clifford alone, or with Lunan
Item 7 of 291911Kilmaronock UF ChurchGartocharn DunbartonshireScotland 
Item 8 of 291911Villa, Mayfield Road and Esslemont Road  EdinburghScotland 
Item 9 of 29c. 1911Offices, Argyle Street  GlasgowScotland 
Item 10 of 291912Dewar's bonded warehousePerth PerthshireScotland 
Item 11 of 291912ManseRutherglen LanarkshireScotland 
Item 12 of 291912Masonic LodgeCampbeltown ArgyllScotland 
Item 13 of 29c. 1912GlenholmTroon AyrshireScotland 
Item 14 of 291913ArdenHelensburgh DunbartonshireScotlandUnspecified work
Item 15 of 291913Printing offices  GlasgowScotland 
Item 16 of 291913Victoria Infirmary, Clinical Research LaboratoryLangside GlasgowScotland 
Item 17 of 291914Campbeltown Cottage HospitalCampbeltown ArgyllScotlandNorth wing, operating and X-Ray room added
Item 18 of 291914Cathcart Established Church and manse  GlasgowScotlandBuilding interrupted by war. Restarted in 1923
Item 19 of 291914Cork warehouse  GlasgowScotland 
Item 20 of 291914Portland Established Church and HallsTroon AyrshireScotland 
Item 21 of 291915Colston Wellpark Church  GlasgowScotland 
Item 22 of 291916Chapelpark, Ewenfield RoadAyr AyrshireScotland 
Item 23 of 291919Cour House and estate buildings  ArgyllScotlandCommenced job - house and farm manager's house
Item 24 of 29c. 1920Balinakill HouseClachan, North Kintyre ArgyllScotlandAlterations/additions?
Item 25 of 29c. 1920Council housesCampbeltown ArgyllScotland 
Item 26 of 29c. 1920East Renfrewshire Golf Club  RenfrewshireScotland 
Item 27 of 291922Victoria Infirmary, MortuaryLangside GlasgowScotland 
Item 28 of 291923(?)Campbeltown War MemorialCampbeltown ArgyllScotlandClifford responsible, according to his son's memoir
Item 29 of 291923Chapel ParkAyr AyrshireScotland 


Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architectural practice:
Item 1 of 3Clifford, William Henry Morton1986Recollections about my father Typescript, per Iain D Paterson, in DMW archive 
Item 2 of 3Murray, Ian (parts written by John Watson Junior) The Victoria Infirmary of Glasgow 1890-1938   
Item 3 of 3Paterson, Ian and Ogilvie, Sheila M Notes on H E Clifford Not published 

Periodical References

The following periodicals contain references to this architectural practice:
 Periodical NameDateEditionPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 2Glasgow Herald17 October 1932   
Item 2 of 2RIAS Quarterly193342Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland (RIAS)p33

Archive References

The following archives hold material relating to this architectural practice:
 SourceArchive NameSource Catalogue No.Notes
Item 1 of 1Professor David M Walker personal archiveProfessor David M Walker, notes and collection of archive material Information from John Watson and Alfred G Lochhead