Basic Biographical Details

Name: Landless & Clifford
Designation: Architectural practice
Started: 1885
Ended: July 1887
Bio Notes: Henry (Harry) Edward Clifford was born at North Naparama, Trinidad, on 12 September 1852, the second son and fourth child of F Henry Clifford, a sugar planter, and his wife Rebecca Anderson, the daughter of John Anderson, a wool carder with a lint mill between Campbeltown and Machrihanish. In 1859 Clifford's father died of a stroke and his mother, then thirty-five, brought her two sons and two daughters to Glasgow where she made a living as a needlewoman.

In October 1867 Clifford was articled to John Burnet Senior for five years and remained a further five as draughtsman; he may previously have been the office boy, as the recollections of Clifford's son state that he joined the office at the age of thirteen. He left to commence practice on his own account first at 113 West Regent Street and then at 196 St Vincent Street, having won 100 in a newspaper competition for a workman's cottage. In his earliest years of independent practice (1878 to 1880) he studied at Glasgow School of Art where he won the Queen's Prize for a dining room wall and the Haldane Prize both in 1879. By 1884 his practice, hitherto supplemented by teaching at Glasgow School of Art, had begun to pick up and he took rooms at 140 Bath Street, apparently within the office of John Honeyman whose practice was then in decline. This arrangement, which may have been with a view to a partnership, ended in 1885 when he formed a partnership with Burnet's nephew and former assistant William Landless under the style of Landless & Clifford at 227 West George Street.

Landless had been born in 1847, the son of William Landless (1806-63) and his wife Margaret Burnet (1811-98) who was Burnet's elder sister. His father had died when he was sixteen, and at or about that time he had been articled to his uncle, remaining with him for a time as an assistant. He had commenced independent practice as early as 1873, the original backbone of his business being work for the Glasgow tramways. His practice had risen to some prominence in 1882 when he gained two important commissions, the Gothic Glasgow Blind Asylum in Castle Street, and John Street School. He was a close friend of the second George Bell of Clarke & Bell, but no link between their firms was formed.

The difficult conditions of the mid-1880s soon caused problems for the practice, and Landless (who was said to have a drink problem, perhaps brought on by the early death of his wife, Eliza Jane Bannatyne Lawson, on 23 March 1887) abandoned private practice in July 1887 when he secured an appointment as clerk of works to Leeds School Board at a salary of 5guineas a week, becoming the board's chief architect two years later. Thereafter Clifford practised on his own account from several addresses in St Vincent Street, later entering into partnership with Thomas Melville Lunan.

Private and Business Addresses

The following private or business addresses are associated with this architectural practice:
 AddressTypeDate fromDate toNotes
Item 1 of 1227, West George Street, Glasgow, ScotlandBusiness1885  

Employment and Training

Employees or Pupils

The following individuals were employed or trained by this architectural practice (click on an item to view details):
 NameDate fromDate toPositionNotes
Item 1 of 2Henry Edward Clifford1885July 1887Partner 
Item 2 of 2William Landless1885July 1887Partner 

Buildings and Designs

This architectural practice was involved with the following buildings or structures from the date specified (click on an item to view details):
 Date startedBuilding nameTown, district or villageIslandCity or countyCountryNotes
Item 1 of 31885Hartwood AsylumShotts LanarkshireScotlandCompetition design, selected but not successful
Item 2 of 31885Hyndland Primary School  GlasgowScotland 
Item 3 of 31885St Kiaran's Episcopal Church and parsonageCampbeltown ArgyllScotlandDesign for church and rectory - only rectory and church gates executed to Clifford & Landless design

References

Bibliographic References

The following books contain references to this architectural practice:
 Author(s)DateTitlePartPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 3Clifford, William Henry Morton1986Recollections about my father Typescript, per Iain D Paterson, in DMW archive 
Item 2 of 3Murray, Ian (parts written by John Watson Junior) The Victoria Infirmary of Glasgow 1890-1938   
Item 3 of 3Paterson, Ian and Ogilvie, Sheila M Notes on H E Clifford Not published 

Periodical References

The following periodicals contain references to this architectural practice:
 Periodical NameDateEditionPublisherNotes
Item 1 of 4British ArchitectJune 1887 or 0700s   
Item 2 of 4Building News1 August 1890   
Item 3 of 4Glasgow Herald17 October 1932   
Item 4 of 4RIAS Quarterly193342Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland (RIAS)p33

Archive References

The following archives hold material relating to this architectural practice:
 SourceArchive NameSource Catalogue No.Notes
Item 1 of 1Professor David M Walker personal archiveProfessor David M Walker, notes and collection of archive material Personal information on Landless from Alexander Wright and George W Burnet WS.